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POL10.
Gurney. Schuyler Colfax (March 23, 1823-Jan. 13, 1885). Congressional representative, 1855-69; Speaker of the House, 1863-69; Vice-president under Grant, 1869-73. CDV. VG. $75

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POL13.
Warren, Boston. Edward Everett (April 11, 1794-Jan. 15, 1865). Statesman, orator, and author. Professor of Greek at Harvard, 1819-25; editor of the “North American Review,” 1819-24; member of Congress from Massachusetts, 1825-35; Governor of Massachusetts, 1836-40; minister to England, 1841-45; President of Harvard, 1846-49; Secretary of State, 1852-53; US Senator from Massachusetts, 1853-54. Spoke for 2 hours at Gettysburg before Lincoln delivered his 2-minute Gettysburg Address. CDV. VG. $50


POL19.
Sarony, NYC. General John Adams Dix (July 24, 1798-April 21, 1879). American Statesman and general. US Senator from NY 1845-49; Secretary of the Treasury 1861; General 1861-65; Governor of NY 1873-75. Cabinet Card. E. $100

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POL21.
Russell & Sons, London. William Ewart Gladstone, (1809-1898). Eminent British statesman, financier, and orator. Served as Prime Minister an unprecedented 4 times. Cabinet Card. VG. $95

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POL31.
Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E. Anthony. George Bancroft (1800-1891). American historian, statesman, and diplomatist; Secretary of the Navy, 1845-’46; established the Naval Academy at Annapolis. CDV. VG. $75

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POL33.
E&HT Anthony. William Henry Seward (May 16, 1801 – October 10, 1872) was United States Secretary of State from 1861 to 1869, and earlier served as Governor of New York and United States Senator. A determined opponent of the spread of slavery in the years leading up to the Civil War, he was a dominant figure in the Republican Party in its formative years. Although regarded as the leading contender for the party’s presidential nomination in 1860, he was defeated by Abraham Lincoln. Seward was born in southeastern New York, where his father, a farmer, owned slaves. He became educated as a lawyer, moving to the Western New York town of Auburn. Seward was elected to the New York State Senate in 1830 as an Anti-Mason. Four years later, he became the Whig Party’s gubernatorial nominee. Though he was not successful in that race, Seward was elected governor in 1838, winning a second two-year term in 1840. During this period, he signed several laws advancing the rights and opportunities for black residents, as well as guaranteeing fugitive slaves jury trials in the state, protecting abolitionists, and using his position to intervene in cases of free blacks enslaved in the South. After several years practicing law in Auburn, he was elected by the state legislature to the U.S. Senate in 1849. Seward’s strong stances and provocative words against slavery brought him hatred in the South. He was re-elected to the Senate in 1855, and soon joined the nascent Republican Party, becoming one of its leading figures. As the 1860 presidential election cycle approached, he was regarded as the leading candidate for the Republican nomination. Several factors, including attitudes to his vocal opposition to slavery, his support for immigrants and Catholics, and his association with editor and political boss Thurlow Weed, combined to defeat him. Although devastated by his loss, he campaigned for Lincoln, who was elected, and who appointed him Secretary of State. Seward did his best to stop the southern states from seceding; once that failed, he devoted himself wholeheartedly to the Union cause. His firm stance against foreign intervention in the Civil War helped deter Britain and France from entering the conflict and possibly gaining the independence of the Confederate States. He was one of the targets of the 1865 assassination plot that killed Lincoln, and was seriously wounded by conspirator Lewis Powell. Seward remained loyally at his post through the presidency of Andrew Johnson, during which he achieved the Alaska purchase. His contemporary Carl Schurz described Seward as “one of those spirits who sometimes will go ahead of public opinion instead of tamely following its footprints.” CDV. VG. $125

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POL47.
H.J. Whitlock, Birmingham. Earl of Derby, Edward Henry Smith Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby (1826-1893). British politician. CDV. VG. $25

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POL48.
A. Liebert, Paris. Leon Gambetta (1838-1882). French statesman of Jewish extraction; escaped from Paris in a balloon Oct. 8, 1870. CDV. VG. $40

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POL50.
W&D Downey, Newcastle on Tyne. Edward Geoffrey Smith Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby (1799-1869). British statesman. CDV. VG. $25


POL126.
Ad. Braun & Cie, Paris. A. Thiers, President of the 3rd French Republic, 1871-1873. Cabinet Card. VG. $50

  
POL146.
G.D. Morse, San Francisco. Governor Henry H. Haight (1825-1878). 10th Governor of California (1867-1871).
Henry Haight was born in the state of New York in 1825. As a young man, he attended Yale University and entered the practice of law, eventually moving west where he prospered and earned a solid reputation. Haight never held public office of any kind before he was elected Governor of California on the Democratic ticket, beginning his term of office in 1867. The state debt was reduced under Haight’s administration. He also ended the government subsidies that had been paid to silk and woolen manufacturers throughout the state for many years. He is credited with establishing the State Board of Health and the University of California, which had only been in the planning stages until his term of office. In 1878 Henry Haight fell ill at his office in San Francisco. He immediately went to a Russian bathhouse and it was there that he died.
VG. $125


POL150.
Stereoscopic Co. Lord Justice Mellish, renowned jurist. CDV. VG. $25


POL152.
C.D. Fredricks & Co, NY. George Bancroft (1800-1891). American historian, statesman, and diplomatist; Secretary of the Navy, 1845-’46; established the Naval Academy at Annapolis. CDV. VG. $75


POL156.
Proctor & Clark, Boston, label on verso. Edward Everett (April 11, 1794 – January 15, 1865), politician and educator from Massachusetts. Everett, a Whig, served as U.S. Representative, and U.S. Senator, the 15th Governor of Massachusetts, Minister to Great Britain, and United States Secretary of State. He also taught at Harvard University and served as president of Harvard. Everett was one of the great American orators of the ante-bellum and Civil War era. He is often remembered today as the featured orator at the dedication ceremony of the National Cemetery in Gettysburg in 1863, where he spoke for over two hours — immediately before President Abraham Lincoln delivered his famous, two-minute Gettysburg Address. CDV. VG. $75

  
POL167.
Sarony, NY. Chauncey Mitchell Depew (1834-1928), US Senator from NY, 1899-1911. Here is a synopsis of Depew’s life:

Education: Peekskill Military Academy. Yale University, second dispute appointments Junior and Senior years; speaker at Junior Exhibition and Commencement; member of the Thulia Boat Club, Linonia (third president), Kappa Sigma Epsilon, Kappa Sigma Theta, Psi Upsilon, and Skull & Bones.

Business: Depew read law with William Nelson of Peekskill, New York from 1856-58; was admitted to the bar in March, 1858; and practiced in Peekskill until 1861; later engaged in the brokerage business in New York City as member of firm of Depew & Potter for a few months; then resumed his law practice in Peekskill, but shortly afterwards moved to New York City; in 1865 appointed and confirmed United States Minister to Japan, but declined the appointment to pursue his railroad career.

Railroad career: In 1866, Depew became the attorney for New York & Harlem Railroad. Three years later he took the same position for the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad. Having earned recognition for his work with subsidiary companies of the Vanderbilt roads, he was moved up in 1876 to become general counsel and director of the whole “Vanderbilt System.” Six years later he began serving on the executive board of the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad as second vice president. In 1885, he was elected president of the railroad and served until 1898. Following the presidency, he served as chairman of board of directors of New York Central Railroad Company.

While Depew was active in the Vanderbilt roads in New York he held concurrent positions with many other railroads and companies. He was president of West Shore Railroad. He served on the boards of directors for the New York and Harlem Railroad, the Chicago and North Western Railway, the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis and Omaha Railroad, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad, the Delaware and Hudson Railroad, the New Jersey Junction Railroad, the St. Lawrence and Adirondack Railroad, the Walkill Valley Railroad, the Canada Southern Railroad.

Aside from railroads, Depew also served on the boards of director for Western Union, the Hudson River Bridge Company, the Niagara River Bridge Company, the New York State Realty & Terminal Company, the Union Trust Company, Equitable Life Assurance Company, and Kensico Cemetery Association. He was appointed regent of the University of the State of New York in 1877 and served until 1904.

Politics: He was a member of the New York State Assembly in 1862 and 1863, in the latter year its Acting Speaker while Speaker Theophilus C. Callicot was under investigation. [1] From 1863 to 1865 he was New York Secretary of State. He was one of the commissioners appointed to build the state capitol 1874; in 1867 appointed clerk of Westchester County by Governor Fuller, but resigned after a short service; made immigration commissioner by New York Legislature in 1870, but declined to serve; member of boundary commission of the state of New York in 1875; had also been commissioner of quarantine and president of Court of Claims of New York City and commissioner of taxes and assessments for the city and county of New York; defeated for Lieutenant Governor of New York on the Liberal Republican-Democratic ticket in 1872; candidate for United States senator in 1881, but withdrew after the fortieth ballot, declined nomination as a senator in 1885, but elected to the Senate in 1898 and served from March 4, 1899, to March 3, 1911; stumped the state of New York for John C. Fremont in 1856 and for Lincoln in 1860; delegate-at-large to Republican National conventions 1888-1904 and delegate to all following conventions, including 1928, being elected the day before he died; made the nomination speeches for Harrison in 1892, Governor Morton in 1896, and Fairbanks in 1904; at the convention in 1888 received ninety-nine votes for the presidential nomination, and in 1892 declined an appointment as Secretary of State in Harrison’s cabinet; Adjutant of the 18th Regiment, New York National Guard, which served in the American Civil War, and later Colonel and Judge Advocate of the 5th Division, on the staff of Major General James W. Husted of the New York Guard, trustee of Peekskill Military Academy; president of New York State Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, of The Pilgrims from 1918 until his death, of the St. Nicholas Society, and of the Union League for seven years (member since 1868 and elected honorary life member at the close of his presidency); an officer of the French Legion of Honor; vice president of New York Chamber of Commerce 1904-08 (member since 1885).

Yale: He was a member of Yale Corporation 1888-1906; member of the Yale Alumni Association of New York at the time of its organization in 1868, its third president (1883-1892), and one of the incorporators of the Yale Club of New York City in 1897; a vice chairman of the $20,000,000 Yale Endowment Campaign; made LL D. Yale 1887; elected an honorary member of Yale Class of 1889 in 1923; By the terms of his will, a bequest of $1,000,000 was left to Yale without restrictions as to its use.

Associations: He was made an honorary member of Columbia chapter of Phi Beta Kappa in 1887; member of citizens’ committee of the civic organization to complete the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City; in 1918 gave a statue of himself to Peekskill and ten acres of land for an extension of Depew Park, which he gave to the village in 1908. He was also a distinguished orator and after-dinner speaker; author: Orations and After Dinner Speeches (1890), Life and Later Speeches (1894), Orations, Addresses and Speeches (eight volumes) (1910), Speeches and Addresses on the threshold of Eighty (1912), Addresses and Literary Contributions on the Threshold of Eighty-two (1916), Speeches and Literary Contributions on the Threshold of Eighty-four (1918), My Memories of Eighty Tears and Marching On (1922); Miscellaneous Speeches on the Threshold of Ninety-two (1925); contributed a My Autobiography” in 1922, and an article to the 50th Anniversary Supplement of the Tale Daily News entitled “An Optimistic Survey” in 1928; member Metropolitan Museum of Art, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Society of Colonial Wars, Connecticut Society of the Society of the Cincinnati, Holland Society, Huguenot Society, New England Society, France-America Society, New York Historical Society, St. Augustine (Fla.) Historical Society, American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society, National Horse Show, Lafayette Post of the G. Al R , and St. Thomas’ (Episcopal) Church, New York; made life member of Lawyers’ Club of New York in 1918; honorary member New York Genealogical and Biographical Society.

Death due to bronchial pneumonia. Buried in family mausoleum in Hillside Cemetery, Peekskill.

Family: His father, Isaac Depew, was a merchant and farmer; pioneer in river transportation between Peekskill and New York; son of Abraham Depew, who served in the Revolutionary Army, and Catherine (Crankheit) Depew, great-grandson of Captain James Cronkite of the Continental Army; descendant of Frangois DuPuy, a French Huguenot, who came to America about 1661, settled first in Brooklyn, N. Y., and in 1685 bought land from the Indians at the present site of Peekskill. Mother, Martha Minot (Mitchell) Depew; daughter of Chauncey Root Mitchell, a lawyer, and Ann (Johnstone) Mitchell; granddaughter of the Rev. Justus Mitchell (BA 1776); great-granddaughter of the Rev. Josiah Sherman (B A. Princeton 1754, honorary M.A. Yale 1765), who served as a Chaplain with rank of Captain in the Revolutionary War and the brother of American founding father Roger Sherman; descendant of Matthew Mitchell, who came to Boston from England in 1635, descended also from Capt. John Sherman, an English officer, who was born in Dedham, Essex County, in 1615, and from the Rev. Charles Chauncey (B.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1613), who came to Plymouth in 1637 and was the second president of Harvard.

Married (1) November 9, 1871, in New York City, Elise A., daughter of William and Eliza Jane (Nevin) Hegeman. One son, Chauncey Mitchell, Jr. . Mrs. Depew died May 7, 1893 Married (2) December 27, 1901, in Nice, France, May, daughter of Henry and Alice (Hermann) Palmer.

Depew was also the paternal uncle of Ganson and Chancey Depew, sons of his brother William Beverly Depew. Ganson Depew was a vice president of the Buffalo & Susquehanna Coal Company; and the personal assistant of his father-in-law Frank Henry “F.H.” Goodyear. Goodyear was the president of the Buffalo & Susquehanna Railway. Chancey DePew, like his uncle, also worked for the Vanderbilt Railway Systems.

When Chauncey Depew died, he was buried in Peekskill. In his honor, the huge concourse of Grand Central Terminal was draped in mourning.

Cabinet Card. G. $75


POL169.
Sarony, NY. Edwin Denison Morgan (1811-1883), Governor of NY (1859-1862); US Senator (1863-1869). He was the first and longest serving chairman of the Republican National Committee. Cabinet Card. VG. $85


POL174.
E&HT Anthony, NY. Robert Barnwell Rhett (1800-1876). South Carolina Secession Advocate, “Father of Secession.” Drafted the South Carolina Ordinance of Secession after Lincoln’s election. CDV trimmed at bottom. VG. $150


POL175.
J. Gurney & Son, NY. Nathaniel Pitcher Tallmadge (1795-1864). Senator from NY, 1833-’44; Tyler appointed him Governor of Wisconsin Territory in 1844 so he resigned from the Senate. Served only until 1845 when he was removed as Governor. CDV trimmed at bottom. VG. $125


POL180.
Photographic negative from Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E&HT Anthony, NY. William Gannaway “Parson” Brownlow (1805-1877). Governor of Tennessee 1865-’69; Senator ’69-’75; strongly pro-Union. CDV trimmed at bottom. G. $100


POL187.
Photographic negative from Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E. Anthony, NY. Edward Everett (1794-1865). Whig politician from Massachusetts. Representative ’25-’35; Governor MA ’36-’40; Secretary of State under Fillmore ’52-’53; Senator ’53-’54; spoke for 2 hours at Gettysburg before Lincoln spoke for 2 minutes. CDV. E. $150


POL192.
J. Gurney & Son, NY. Simeon Draper (1804-1866). Whig NY politician. CDV. VG. $75


POL194.
Photographic negative from Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E. Anthony, NY. Isaac Toucey (1792-1869). Governor of Connecticut ’46-’47; US Attorney General ’48-’49; Senator CT ’52-’57; Secretary of the Navy ’57-’61 under Buchanan. CDV. VG. $100


POL202.
Photographic negative from Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E&HT Anthony, NY. Thomas Howell Cobb (1815-1868). Southern Democrat; Representative from Georgia ’43-’45; ’45-’51; Speaker of the House ’49-’51; 35th Governor of Georgia ’51-’53; Secretary of the Treasury ’57-’60; Leader of Secession; Speaker of the Confederate Congress ’61-’62; Major-general in Confederate Army. CDV trimmed at bottom. VG. $125


POL205.
Photographic negative from Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E&HT Anthony, NY. Francis Preston Blair (1821-1875). Representative from Missouri ’57-’59; Colonel in the Union Army; Democratic candidate for VP 1868; Senator ’70-’73. CDV trimmed at bottom. VG. $125


POL208.
Photographic negative from Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E&HT Anthony, NY. Mrs. George McClellan, Ellen Mary Marcy. CDV trimmed at bottom. G. $50


POL209.
Photographic negative from Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E. Anthony, NY. Mrs. General N.P. Banks. CDV trimmed at bottom. VG. $50

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POL215.
Photographic negative from Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E. Anthony, NY. Myra Clark Gaines (1805-1885), heiress to $35 million, wife of General Gaines. Myra’s is a great story, there is a recent book published on her life. CDV trimmed at bottom. VG. $65


POL217.
No ID. John Bright (1811-1889). Quaker, distinguished British Radical and Liberal Statesman, great orator. CDV trimmed at bottom. VG. $20


POL218.
Edward Anthony, NY. Richard Cobden (1804-1865). British manufacturer, Radical and Liberal statesman. CDV trimmed at bottom. VG. $30


POL227.
Prescott, Hartford, Conn. Marshall Jewell (1825-1883). He served as the 44th and 46 Governor of CT between 1869 and 1870, and again from 1871 until 1873. Born in 1825 in Winchester, NH, he was first appointed by President Grant as Minister to Russia from 1873 to 1874, but after only seven months in St. Petersburg, he left. Jewell then served as the Postmaster General between 1874 and 1876. He was also a presidential candidate at the 1876 Republican National Convention and served as the chairman of the Republican National Committee from 1880 until 1883. He died in 1883 in New Haven, and was interred at Cedar Hill Cemetery. Cabinet card. VG. $95


POL235.
Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E&HT Anthony. Edward Everett (April 11, 1794 – January 15, 1865), politician and educator from Massachusetts. Everett, a Whig, served as U.S. Representative, and U.S. Senator, the 15th Governor of Massachusetts, Minister to Great Britain, and United States Secretary of State. He also taught at Harvard University and served as president of Harvard. Everett was one of the great American orators of the ante-bellum and Civil War era. He is often remembered today as the featured orator at the dedication ceremony of the National Cemetery in Gettysburg in 1863, where he spoke for over two hours — immediately before President Abraham Lincoln delivered his famous, two-minute Gettysburg Address. CDV. VG. $75


POL246.
Brady’s National Portrait Gallery. Published by E&HT Anthony. Henry Wilson (1812-1875). Senator from Massachusetts and 18th Vice President of the US under Grant 1873-’75. CDV. VG. $125


POL248.
Brady’s National Portrait Gallery. Published by E&HT Anthony. Richard Cobden (1804-1865). British manufacturer, Radical and Liberal statesman. CDV. VG. $25


POL249.
E&HT Anthony. John Bright. (1811 – 1889), Quaker, was a British Radical and Liberal statesman, associated with Richard Cobden in the formation of the Anti-Corn Law League. He was one of the greatest orators of his generation, and a strong critic of British foreign policy. He sat in the House of Commons from 1843 to 1889. CDV. VG. $20


POL251.
D. Appleton & Co., NY. John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, (1792 – 1878), known as Lord John Russell before 1861, was an English Whig and Liberal politician who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. CDV. G. $15


POL253.
D. Appleton & Co., NY. John Singleton Copley, 1st Baron Lyndhurst (1772 – 1863), was a British lawyer and politician. He was three times Lord Chancellor of Great Britain. CDV. VG. $15


POL254.
Charles D. Fredricks & Co., NY. Henry Clay. CDV. G. $175

Salmon P. Chase Salmon P. Chase
POL256. Negative from Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E. Anthony, NY.  Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist who served as the sixth Chief Justice of the United States from 1864 to 1873. During his career, Chase was the 23rd Governor of Ohio and U.S. Senator from Ohio prior to service under Abraham Lincoln as the 25th Secretary of the Treasury. As Treasury Secretary, Chase strengthened the federal government, introducing its first paper currency as well as a national bank, both during wartime. Chase articulated the “slave power conspiracy” thesis, devoting his energies to the destruction of what he considered the Slave Power—the conspiracy of Southern slave owners to seize control of the federal government and block the progress of liberty. He coined the slogan of the Free Soil Party, “Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men”. Chief Justice Chase presided over the Senate trial of Andrew Johnson during the President’s impeachment proceedings in 1868. CDV. G. $125

Peter Burnett Peter Burnett
POL258. CDV by Wm. Shew, San Francisco of Peter Hardeman Burnett (November 15, 1807 – May 17, 1895), politician and the first state governor of California, serving from December 20, 1849, to January 9, 1851. He was also the first California governor to resign from office. Burnett previously served briefly during December 1849 as the territorial civilian governor of California. Born in Nashville, Tennessee, but raised in rural Missouri, Burnett received no formal education, but educated himself in law and government. After owning a general store, he turned to his law career; in defending a group of Mormons — including Joseph Smith — who were accused of treason, arson and robbery. Burnett requested a change of venue for the court proceedings, and during transportation to the next venue, the defendants escaped. In 1843, Burnett became part of the exodus of Easterners moving Westward, moving his family to the Oregon Country (now modern-day Oregon) to take up farming in order to solve growing debts in Missouri, an agricultural endeavour that failed. While in the Oregon Country, Burnett began his forays into politics, getting elected to the provisional legislature between 1844 to 1848. In 1844, he completed construction of Germantown Road between the Tualatin Valley and what became Portland. It was during his time in Oregon that Burnett, a traditional Southern Protestant, began to question the practices of his faith, drifting his religious views more to Roman Catholicism. By 1846, Burnett and his family made the complete transition from Protestant to become Catholic. While in the Legislature, and later in the Provisional Supreme Court, Burnett signed Oregon’s first racial exclusion laws. Upon news of the discovery of gold in Coloma, California on January 24, 1848, Burnett and his family moved south to participate in the rush. After modest success in getting gold, Burnett envisioned a career in law in San Francisco, a rapidly growing boom town thanks largely to the Gold Rush. On the way to the Bay Area, Burnett met John Augustus Sutter, Jr., son of German-born Swiss pioneer John Sutter. Selling his father’s deeded lands in the near vicinity of Sutter’s Fort, the younger Sutter offered Burnett a job in selling land plots for the new town of Sacramento. Over the next year, Burnett made nearly $50,000 in land sales in Sacramento, a city ideally suited due to its closeness to the Sierra Nevada and the neighboring Sacramento River’s navigability for large ships. In 1849, Burnett announced his intentions to return to politics. 1849 saw the first California Constitutional Convention in Monterey, where territorial politicians drafted documents suitable to admit California as a state in the United States. During the 1849 referendum to adopt the California Constitution, Burnett, now with name recognition in Sacramento and San Francisco, and a resume that included the Oregon Provisional Legislature, decided to run for the new territory’s first civilian governor, replacing the string of military governors and bureaucracy from the U.S. military. Burnett easily won the election over four other candidates, including John Sutter, and was sworn in as California’s first elected civilian governor on December 20, 1849 in San Jose in front of the California State Legislature. In the first days of the Burnett Administration, the governor and the California Legislature set out to create the organs of a state government, creating state cabinet posts, archives, executive posts and departments, subdividing the state into 27 counties and appointing John C. Fremont and William M. Gwin as California’s senators to the federal U.S. Senate. Despite home proclamations and bureaucratic reorganizations that recognized California now as a U.S. state, the U.S. Congress and President Zachary Taylor had in fact not even signed authorization of statehood for California. Part of this miscommunication was due to California’s relative remoteness to the rest of the U.S. during the time, but also to over-enthusiastic attitudes by politicians and the public alike to get California into the Union as quickly as possible. Following long contentious debates in the U.S. Senate, California was admitted as a (non-slave) state on September 9, 1850 as part of the Compromise of 1850. Californians did not learn of their official statehood until one month later, when on October 18, the steamer Oregon entered San Francisco Bay, with a banner strapped to her rigging reading “California Is Now A State.” During these advancements into statehood, Governor Burnett’s popularity among the State Legislature, the press and the public plummeted. Relations between the Legislature and Burnett began to immediately sour in early 1850, when bills pressing for the incorporation of Sacramento and Los Angeles as city municipalities, with Los Angeles being a special incorporation due to its earlier pueblo status during the previous Spanish and Mexican rule, passed the State Assembly and Senate. Burnett vetoed both bills, citing special incorporation bills as unconstitutional, and that reviews for municipal incorporation were best left to county courts. While the Legislature failed to override Burnett’s veto of the Los Angeles bill, it did however successfully override the Sacramento bill, making Sacramento California’s first incorporated city. As in Oregon, Burnett pushed for the exclusion of blacks from California, raising the ire of pro-slavery supporters who wanted to import the Southern slave system to the West Coast. His proposals were defeated in the Legislature. Similarly, Burnett also pushed for heavy taxation on foreign immigrants. An 1850 Foreign Miners Tax Act, signed into law by Burnett, required every miner of non-American origin to pay $20. In addition to these proposals and laws, Burnett also argued heavily for increased taxation and for the expansion of capital punishment to include larceny. Characterized as an aloof politician with little support from the Legislature by the San Francisco, Sacramento and Los Angeles press, Burnett grew frustrated as his agenda ground to a halt, and his governance style increasingly criticized. He became a regular fixture of ridicule in the state’s newspapers and on the floor of the Legislature. With little over a year in office, Burnett, the first governor of the state, became the first to resign, announcing his resignation in January 1851. Burnett cited personal matters for his departure. Lieutenant Governor John McDougall replaced Burnett as the Governor of California on 9 January. Peter Burnett founded the city of Oregon City in Butte County, California. One year after leaving the governorship, Burnett was finally able to repay the heavy debts he had incurred in Missouri nearly two decades before. He entered a number of careers, serving briefly as a justice in the California Supreme Court between 1857 and 1858, the Sacramento City Council, as well as becoming a San Jose-based lawyer, a noted proponent of Catholicism during the Victorian period, and then the president of the Pacific Bank of San Francisco. Although never venturing into politics much after the 1860s, Burnett was an active supporter of the federal Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. In 1880, he published an autobiography, Recollections and Opinions of an Old Pioneer. He died May 17, 1895 at the age of 87 in San Francisco, and is buried in the Santa Clara Mission Cemetery at Santa Clara, California. Peter Burnett’s legacy is deeply clouded today. While regarded as one of the fathers of modern California in the state’s early days, Burnett’s openly racist attitudes towards blacks, Chinese, and Native Americans have blackened his name today. Burnett’s period in the Oregon Provisional Legislature helped facilitate the exclusion of blacks from the state until 1926. One of his Oregon proposals was to force free blacks to leave the state, and to institute floggings, every six months, of any who continued to remain. Also, his open hostility to foreign laborers influenced a number of federal and state California legislators to push future xenophobic legislation, such as the Chinese Exclusion Act thirty years after his departure from the governorship. Burnett was also an open advocate of exterminating local California Indian tribes, a policy that continued with successive state governmental administrations for several decades, where the state offered $25 to $50 for evidence of dead Natives.
The Burnett Child Development Center, a preschool in a predominantly black San Francisco neighborhood, had been named for Burnett. However, when Burnett’s racist positions were rediscovered, the school was renamed in 2011 to the Leola M. Havard Early Education School, in honor of San Francisco’s first African-American principal. Similarly, the Peter H. Burnett Elementary School in Long Beach has been recently renamed, due to Burnett’s views. It is now named after Bobbi Smith, the first African-American member of the Long Beach Unified School District’s board. VG. $200

pol259 Queen Emma of Hawaii
POL259. Bradley & Rulofson, San Francisco. Queen Emma of the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii). Emma was queen consort of King Kamehameha IV from 1856 until his death in 1863. She ran for ruling monarch against King David Kalakaua but was defeated. CDV. VG. $350

pol260 Salmon P. Chase
POL260. Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist who served as the sixth Chief Justice of the United States from 1864 to 1873. During his career, Chase was the 23rd Governor of Ohio and U.S. Senator from Ohio prior to service under Abraham Lincoln as the 25th Secretary of the Treasury. As Treasury Secretary, Chase strengthened the federal government, introducing its first paper currency as well as a national bank, both during wartime. Chase articulated the “slave power conspiracy” thesis, devoting his energies to the destruction of what he considered the Slave Power—the conspiracy of Southern slave owners to seize control of the federal government and block the progress of liberty. He coined the slogan of the Free Soil Party, “Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men”. Chief Justice Chase presided over the Senate trial of Andrew Johnson during the President’s impeachment proceedings in 1868. CDV. VG. $150

pol261 Charles Sumner
POL261. Photographic negative by Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E&HT Anthony. Charles Sumner (January 6, 1811 – March 11, 1874) was an American politician and senator from Massachusetts. As an academic lawyer and a powerful orator, Sumner was the leader of the antislavery forces in Massachusetts and a leader of the Radical Republicans in the United States Senate during the Civil War working to destroy the Confederacy, free all the slaves, and keep on good terms with Europe. During Reconstruction, he fought to minimize the power of the ex-Confederates and guarantee equal rights to the freedmen. Sumner changed his political party several times as anti-slavery coalitions rose and fell in the 1830s and 1840s before coalescing in the 1850s as the Republican Party, the affiliation with which he became best known. He devoted his enormous energies to the destruction of what Republicans called the Slave Power, the influence of Southern slave owners over the federal government, thereby ensuring the survival and expansion of slavery. In 1856, a South Carolina Congressman, Democrat Preston Brooks, nearly killed Sumner on the Senate floor two days after Sumner delivered an intensely anti-slavery speech called “The Crime Against Kansas”. In the speech, Sumner characterized the attacker’s cousin, South Carolina Senator Andrew Butler, a Democrat, as a pimp for slavery. The episode played a major role in the coming of the Civil War. During the war Sumner was a leader of the Radical Republican faction that criticized President Abraham Lincoln for being too moderate on the South. One of the most learned statesmen of the era, he specialized in foreign affairs, and worked closely with Abraham Lincoln to keep the British and the French from intervening on the side of the Confederacy during the Civil War. Sumner’s expertise and energy made him a powerful chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. As the chief Radical leader in the Senate during Reconstruction, Sumner fought hard to provide equal civil and voting rights for the freedmen on the grounds that “consent of the governed” was a basic principle of American republicanism, and to block ex-Confederates from power so they would not reverse the gains made from the Union’s victory in the Civil War. Sumner, teaming with House leader Thaddeus Stevens, battled Andrew Johnson’s reconstruction plans and sought to impose a Radical program on the South. Although Sumner forcefully advocated the annexation of Alaska in the Senate, he was against the annexation of the Dominican Republic, then known by the name of its capital, Santo Domingo. After leading Senators to defeat President Ulysses S. Grant’s Santo Domingo Treaty in 1870, Sumner broke with Grant, and denounced him in such terms that reconciliation was impossible. In 1871, President Grant and his Secretary of State Hamilton Fish retaliated; through Grant’s supporters in the Senate, Sumner was deposed as head of the Foreign Relations Committee. Sumner had become convinced that Grant was a corrupt despot and that the success of Reconstruction policies called for new national leadership. Sumner bitterly opposed Grant’s reelection by supporting the Liberal Republican candidate Horace Greeley in 1872 and lost his power inside the Republican Party. Less than two years later, he died in office. 2-cent revenue stamp on verso. CDV. VG. $150

pol262 Daniel Webster
POL262. Photographic negative from Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E&HT Anthony. Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782 – October 24, 1852) was a leading American senator and statesman during the era of the Second Party System, which was the political system in the United States from about 1828 to 1854, characterized by rapidly increasing voter interest and personal loyalty to parties. Webster was the outstanding spokesman for American nationalism with powerful oratory that made him a key Whig leader. He spoke for conservatives, and led the opposition to Democrat Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party. He was a spokesman for modernization, banking, and industry, but not for the common people who composed the base of his opponents in Jacksonian Democracy. “He was a thoroughgoing elitist, and he reveled in it,” says biographer Robert Remini. During his 40 years in national politics, Webster served in the House of Representatives for eight years (representing New Hampshire and then Massachusetts) and in the Senate for 19 years (representing Massachusetts), and served as the United States Secretary of State under three presidents. One of the highest-regarded courtroom lawyers of the era, Webster shaped several key U.S. Supreme Court cases that established important constitutional precedents that bolstered the authority of the federal government. As a diplomat he is best known for negotiating the Webster-Ashburton Treaty with Great Britain; it established the definitive eastern border between the United States and Canada. Chiefly recognized for his Senate tenure, Webster was a key figure in the institution’s “Golden days”. Webster was the Northern member of the “Great Triumvirate”, with his colleagues Henry Clay from the West (Kentucky) and John C. Calhounfrom the South (South Carolina). His “Reply to Hayne” in 1830 has been regarded as one of the greatest speeches in the senate’s history. As with his fellow Whig Henry Clay, Webster wanted to see the Union preserved and civil war averted. They both worked for compromises to stave off the sectionalism that threatened war between the North and the South. Webster tried and failed three times to become President of the United States. Brady’s 1862 copyright line bottom recto. CDV. VG. $150

pol266 Thomas Hart Benton
POL266. No ID. Thomas Hart Benton (March 14, 1782-April 10, 1858). “Old Bullion.” Senator from Missouri 1821-1851; representative 1853-1855. CDV. VG. $150

Mouravieff pol272b
POL272. Charlet & Jacotin, Paris. Nicolas Mouravieff Amourski, General, coloniser of the Russian Far East. VG. $10

pol273 Charles Sumner
POL273. Warren’s Portraits, Boston. Charles Sumner. Cabinet Card. E. $125

Calvin Stewart Brice
POL274. Cabinet Card by Roy Hume, Lima, Ohio of Calvin Stewart Brice (September 17, 1845 – December 15, 1898), a Democratic politician from Ohio. Born at Denmark in Morrow County, Brice dropped out of Miami University in 1861 to join the Union Army. After a short stint in the Army, he returned to Miami University and earned his undergraduate degree from there in 1863. After the Civil War, Brice studied law at the University of Michigan and then started a business career where he amassed a fortune, largely in railroads. In 1879, he became president of the Lake Erie and Western Railroad and built the Nickel Plate Road in 1882. A Democrat, Brice was the chairman of the Democratic National Committee from 1889 until 1892 and won election to the Senate in 1890, serving a single term in office. Brice’s first attempt to join the army in 1861 met with little success, after being turned down because of his young age. In the summer of 1862, however, Brice enlisted and served three months in the 86th Regiment of the Ohio Volunteer Infantry, seeing action in West Virginia. In 1863 he returned to and graduated from Miami University and worked as a schoolmaster, before he joined the army again in 1864, this time serving as captain to a company of volunteers he recruited for the 180th Ohio Infantry. Brice rose rapidly through the ranks of the Union Army and, by the end of the war, attained the position of Lieutenant-Colonel. It’s possible that this card is signed on verso but I have no way to be sure. $75

John Morrissey
POL275. John Morrissey (Feb. 12, 1831-May 1, 1878), also known as Old Smoke was an Irish American bare-knuckle boxer and member of the “Dead Rabbits” gang in New York City in the 1850s. He later became a Democratic State Senator and U.S. Congressman from New York, backed by Tammany Hall. CDV. VG. $225


POL276. C.M. Bell, Washington, DC.  Cabinet Card of William Eaton Chandler (December 28, 1835 – November 30, 1917), a lawyer who served as United States Secretary of the Navy (1882-1885) and as a Republican U.S. Senator from New Hampshire. VG. $45


POL277. Cabinet Card by C.M. Bell, Washington, DC of Walter Quintin Gresham (March 17, 1832 – May 28, 1895), an American statesman and jurist. He served as a federal judge and in the Cabinet of two presidential administrations. He affiliated with the Republican Party for most of his career but joined the Democratic Party late in life. Gresham began a legal career in Corydon, Indiana after attending the Indiana University Bloomington. He campaigned for the Republican Party in the 1856 elections and won election to the Indiana House of Representatives in 1860. He served as a Union general during the American Civil War, taking part in the Siege of Vicksburg and other major battles. After the war, President Ulysses S. Grant appointed Gresham to a position on the United States District Court for the District of Indiana. Gresham remained on that court until 1883, when he resigned his position to become Postmaster General under President Chester A. Arthur. After briefly serving as Arthur’s Secretary of the Treasury, Gresham accepted appointment to the United States circuit court for the Seventh Circuit. Gresham was a candidate for the presidential nomination at the 1884 Republican National Convention and the 1888 Republican National Convention. Much of his support for those nominations came from agrarian unions like the Farmers’ Alliance. In the 1892 presidential election, Gresham broke with the Republican Party and advocated the election of Democrat Grover Cleveland. After Cleveland won the election, Gresham resigned from the federal bench to serve as Cleveland’s Secretary of State. Gresham held that position until his death in 1895. G. $75


POL280. Cabinet Card by C.M. Bell, Washington, DC of Supreme Court Justice Thomas Stanley Matthews (July 21, 1824 – March 22, 1889), known as Stanley Matthews, an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, serving from May 1881 to his death in 1889. Matthews was the Court’s 46th justice. Before his appointment to the Court by President James A. Garfield, Matthews served as a senator from his home state of Ohio. VG. $45


POL281. Cabinet Card by C.M. Bell, Washington, DC of Supreme Court Justice Joseph Philo Bradley (March 14, 1813 – January 22, 1892), an American jurist best known for his service on the Electoral Commission that decided the disputed 1876 presidential election. VG. $50


POL282.  Cabinet Card by C.M. Bell, Washington, DC of Supreme Court Justice John Marshall Harlan, a Republican from Kentucky who served on the court from 1877-1910. John Marshall Harlan (June 1, 1833 – October 14, 1911) was an American lawyer and politician from Kentucky who served as an associate justice on the U.S. Supreme Court. Harlan was born at Harlan’s Station, 5 miles west of Danville, Kentucky on Salt River Road, in 1833 to a prominent family. He attended school in Frankfortand then graduated from Centre College. Harlan entered Kentucky politics in 1851, and served in a variety of positions, most notably Attorney General of Kentucky, from 1863 to 1867. When the Civil War broke out, Harlan strongly supported the Union, although he opposed the Emancipation Proclamation and supported slavery. However, after the election of Ulysses S. Grant as President in 1868, he reversed his views and became a strong supporter of civil rights. In 1877, Harlan was appointed a member of the Supreme Court. A Christian fundamentalist, Harlan’s Christian beliefs strongly shaped his views during his tenure as Supreme Court justice. He is best known for his role as the lone dissenter in the Civil Rights Cases (1883), and Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), which, respectively, struck down as unconstitutional federal anti-discrimination legislation and upheld southern segregation statutes. These dissents, among others, led to his nickname of “The Great Dissenter.” Harlan died in 1911, at the age of 78. VG. $65