POL19.
Sarony, NYC. General John Adams Dix (July 24, 1798-April 21, 1879). American Statesman and general. US Senator from NY 1845-49; Secretary of the Treasury 1861; General 1861-65; Governor of NY 1873-75. Cabinet Card. E. $100

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POL21.
Russell & Sons, London. William Ewart Gladstone, (1809-1898). Eminent British statesman, financier, and orator. Served as Prime Minister an unprecedented 4 times. Cabinet Card. VG. $95


POL126.
Ad. Braun & Cie, Paris. A. Thiers, President of the 3rd French Republic, 1871-1873. Cabinet Card. VG. $20


POL152.
C.D. Fredricks & Co, NY. George Bancroft (1800-1891). American historian, statesman, and diplomatist; Secretary of the Navy, 1845-’46; established the Naval Academy at Annapolis. CDV. VG. $75


POL156.
Proctor & Clark, Boston, label on verso. Edward Everett (April 11, 1794 – January 15, 1865), politician and educator from Massachusetts. Everett, a Whig, served as U.S. Representative, and U.S. Senator, the 15th Governor of Massachusetts, Minister to Great Britain, and United States Secretary of State. He also taught at Harvard University and served as president of Harvard. Everett was one of the great American orators of the ante-bellum and Civil War era. He is often remembered today as the featured orator at the dedication ceremony of the National Cemetery in Gettysburg in 1863, where he spoke for over two hours — immediately before President Abraham Lincoln delivered his famous, two-minute Gettysburg Address. CDV. VG. $75

  
POL167.
Sarony, NY. Chauncey Mitchell Depew (1834-1928), US Senator from NY, 1899-1911. Here is a synopsis of Depew’s life:

Education: Peekskill Military Academy. Yale University, second dispute appointments Junior and Senior years; speaker at Junior Exhibition and Commencement; member of the Thulia Boat Club, Linonia (third president), Kappa Sigma Epsilon, Kappa Sigma Theta, Psi Upsilon, and Skull & Bones.

Business: Depew read law with William Nelson of Peekskill, New York from 1856-58; was admitted to the bar in March, 1858; and practiced in Peekskill until 1861; later engaged in the brokerage business in New York City as member of firm of Depew & Potter for a few months; then resumed his law practice in Peekskill, but shortly afterwards moved to New York City; in 1865 appointed and confirmed United States Minister to Japan, but declined the appointment to pursue his railroad career.

Railroad career: In 1866, Depew became the attorney for New York & Harlem Railroad. Three years later he took the same position for the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad. Having earned recognition for his work with subsidiary companies of the Vanderbilt roads, he was moved up in 1876 to become general counsel and director of the whole “Vanderbilt System.” Six years later he began serving on the executive board of the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad as second vice president. In 1885, he was elected president of the railroad and served until 1898. Following the presidency, he served as chairman of board of directors of New York Central Railroad Company.

While Depew was active in the Vanderbilt roads in New York he held concurrent positions with many other railroads and companies. He was president of West Shore Railroad. He served on the boards of directors for the New York and Harlem Railroad, the Chicago and North Western Railway, the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis and Omaha Railroad, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad, the Delaware and Hudson Railroad, the New Jersey Junction Railroad, the St. Lawrence and Adirondack Railroad, the Walkill Valley Railroad, the Canada Southern Railroad.

Aside from railroads, Depew also served on the boards of director for Western Union, the Hudson River Bridge Company, the Niagara River Bridge Company, the New York State Realty & Terminal Company, the Union Trust Company, Equitable Life Assurance Company, and Kensico Cemetery Association. He was appointed regent of the University of the State of New York in 1877 and served until 1904.

Politics: He was a member of the New York State Assembly in 1862 and 1863, in the latter year its Acting Speaker while Speaker Theophilus C. Callicot was under investigation. [1] From 1863 to 1865 he was New York Secretary of State. He was one of the commissioners appointed to build the state capitol 1874; in 1867 appointed clerk of Westchester County by Governor Fuller, but resigned after a short service; made immigration commissioner by New York Legislature in 1870, but declined to serve; member of boundary commission of the state of New York in 1875; had also been commissioner of quarantine and president of Court of Claims of New York City and commissioner of taxes and assessments for the city and county of New York; defeated for Lieutenant Governor of New York on the Liberal Republican-Democratic ticket in 1872; candidate for United States senator in 1881, but withdrew after the fortieth ballot, declined nomination as a senator in 1885, but elected to the Senate in 1898 and served from March 4, 1899, to March 3, 1911; stumped the state of New York for John C. Fremont in 1856 and for Lincoln in 1860; delegate-at-large to Republican National conventions 1888-1904 and delegate to all following conventions, including 1928, being elected the day before he died; made the nomination speeches for Harrison in 1892, Governor Morton in 1896, and Fairbanks in 1904; at the convention in 1888 received ninety-nine votes for the presidential nomination, and in 1892 declined an appointment as Secretary of State in Harrison’s cabinet; Adjutant of the 18th Regiment, New York National Guard, which served in the American Civil War, and later Colonel and Judge Advocate of the 5th Division, on the staff of Major General James W. Husted of the New York Guard, trustee of Peekskill Military Academy; president of New York State Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, of The Pilgrims from 1918 until his death, of the St. Nicholas Society, and of the Union League for seven years (member since 1868 and elected honorary life member at the close of his presidency); an officer of the French Legion of Honor; vice president of New York Chamber of Commerce 1904-08 (member since 1885).

Yale: He was a member of Yale Corporation 1888-1906; member of the Yale Alumni Association of New York at the time of its organization in 1868, its third president (1883-1892), and one of the incorporators of the Yale Club of New York City in 1897; a vice chairman of the $20,000,000 Yale Endowment Campaign; made LL D. Yale 1887; elected an honorary member of Yale Class of 1889 in 1923; By the terms of his will, a bequest of $1,000,000 was left to Yale without restrictions as to its use.

Associations: He was made an honorary member of Columbia chapter of Phi Beta Kappa in 1887; member of citizens’ committee of the civic organization to complete the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City; in 1918 gave a statue of himself to Peekskill and ten acres of land for an extension of Depew Park, which he gave to the village in 1908. He was also a distinguished orator and after-dinner speaker; author: Orations and After Dinner Speeches (1890), Life and Later Speeches (1894), Orations, Addresses and Speeches (eight volumes) (1910), Speeches and Addresses on the threshold of Eighty (1912), Addresses and Literary Contributions on the Threshold of Eighty-two (1916), Speeches and Literary Contributions on the Threshold of Eighty-four (1918), My Memories of Eighty Tears and Marching On (1922); Miscellaneous Speeches on the Threshold of Ninety-two (1925); contributed a My Autobiography” in 1922, and an article to the 50th Anniversary Supplement of the Tale Daily News entitled “An Optimistic Survey” in 1928; member Metropolitan Museum of Art, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Society of Colonial Wars, Connecticut Society of the Society of the Cincinnati, Holland Society, Huguenot Society, New England Society, France-America Society, New York Historical Society, St. Augustine (Fla.) Historical Society, American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society, National Horse Show, Lafayette Post of the G. Al R , and St. Thomas’ (Episcopal) Church, New York; made life member of Lawyers’ Club of New York in 1918; honorary member New York Genealogical and Biographical Society.

Death due to bronchial pneumonia. Buried in family mausoleum in Hillside Cemetery, Peekskill.

Family: His father, Isaac Depew, was a merchant and farmer; pioneer in river transportation between Peekskill and New York; son of Abraham Depew, who served in the Revolutionary Army, and Catherine (Crankheit) Depew, great-grandson of Captain James Cronkite of the Continental Army; descendant of Frangois DuPuy, a French Huguenot, who came to America about 1661, settled first in Brooklyn, N. Y., and in 1685 bought land from the Indians at the present site of Peekskill. Mother, Martha Minot (Mitchell) Depew; daughter of Chauncey Root Mitchell, a lawyer, and Ann (Johnstone) Mitchell; granddaughter of the Rev. Justus Mitchell (BA 1776); great-granddaughter of the Rev. Josiah Sherman (B A. Princeton 1754, honorary M.A. Yale 1765), who served as a Chaplain with rank of Captain in the Revolutionary War and the brother of American founding father Roger Sherman; descendant of Matthew Mitchell, who came to Boston from England in 1635, descended also from Capt. John Sherman, an English officer, who was born in Dedham, Essex County, in 1615, and from the Rev. Charles Chauncey (B.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1613), who came to Plymouth in 1637 and was the second president of Harvard.

Married (1) November 9, 1871, in New York City, Elise A., daughter of William and Eliza Jane (Nevin) Hegeman. One son, Chauncey Mitchell, Jr. . Mrs. Depew died May 7, 1893 Married (2) December 27, 1901, in Nice, France, May, daughter of Henry and Alice (Hermann) Palmer.

Depew was also the paternal uncle of Ganson and Chancey Depew, sons of his brother William Beverly Depew. Ganson Depew was a vice president of the Buffalo & Susquehanna Coal Company; and the personal assistant of his father-in-law Frank Henry “F.H.” Goodyear. Goodyear was the president of the Buffalo & Susquehanna Railway. Chancey DePew, like his uncle, also worked for the Vanderbilt Railway Systems.

When Chauncey Depew died, he was buried in Peekskill. In his honor, the huge concourse of Grand Central Terminal was draped in mourning.

Cabinet Card. G. $35


POL169.
Sarony, NY. Edwin Denison Morgan (1811-1883), Governor of NY (1859-1862); US Senator (1863-1869). He was the first and longest serving chairman of the Republican National Committee. Cabinet Card. VG. $85


POL175.
J. Gurney & Son, NY. Nathaniel Pitcher Tallmadge (1795-1864). Senator from NY, 1833-’44; Tyler appointed him Governor of Wisconsin Territory in 1844 so he resigned from the Senate. Served only until 1845 when he was removed as Governor. CDV trimmed at bottom. VG. $125


POL192.
J. Gurney & Son, NY. Simeon Draper (1804-1866). Whig NY politician. CDV. VG. $75


POL194.
Photographic negative from Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E. Anthony, NY. Isaac Toucey (1792-1869). Governor of Connecticut ’46-’47; US Attorney General ’48-’49; Senator CT ’52-’57; Secretary of the Navy ’57-’61 under Buchanan. CDV. VG. $100


POL205.
Photographic negative from Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E&HT Anthony, NY. Francis Preston Blair (1821-1875). Representative from Missouri ’57-’59; Colonel in the Union Army; Democratic candidate for VP 1868; Senator ’70-’73. CDV trimmed at bottom. VG. $125


POL208.
Photographic negative from Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E&HT Anthony, NY. Mrs. George McClellan, Ellen Mary Marcy. CDV trimmed at bottom. G. $50


POL209.
Photographic negative from Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E. Anthony, NY. Mrs. General N.P. Banks. CDV trimmed at bottom. VG. $50

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POL215.
Photographic negative from Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E. Anthony, NY. Myra Clark Gaines (1805-1885), heiress to $35 million, wife of General Gaines. Myra’s is a great story, there is a recent book published on her life. CDV trimmed at bottom. VG. $65


POL227.
Prescott, Hartford, Conn. Marshall Jewell (1825-1883). He served as the 44th and 46 Governor of CT between 1869 and 1870, and again from 1871 until 1873. Born in 1825 in Winchester, NH, he was first appointed by President Grant as Minister to Russia from 1873 to 1874, but after only seven months in St. Petersburg, he left. Jewell then served as the Postmaster General between 1874 and 1876. He was also a presidential candidate at the 1876 Republican National Convention and served as the chairman of the Republican National Committee from 1880 until 1883. He died in 1883 in New Haven, and was interred at Cedar Hill Cemetery. Cabinet card. VG. $45


POL235.
Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E&HT Anthony. Edward Everett (April 11, 1794 – January 15, 1865), politician and educator from Massachusetts. Everett, a Whig, served as U.S. Representative, and U.S. Senator, the 15th Governor of Massachusetts, Minister to Great Britain, and United States Secretary of State. He also taught at Harvard University and served as president of Harvard. Everett was one of the great American orators of the ante-bellum and Civil War era. He is often remembered today as the featured orator at the dedication ceremony of the National Cemetery in Gettysburg in 1863, where he spoke for over two hours — immediately before President Abraham Lincoln delivered his famous, two-minute Gettysburg Address. CDV. VG. $75


POL246.
Brady’s National Portrait Gallery. Published by E&HT Anthony. Henry Wilson (1812-1875). Senator from Massachusetts and 18th Vice President of the US under Grant 1873-’75. CDV. VG. $125


POL248.
Brady’s National Portrait Gallery. Published by E&HT Anthony. Richard Cobden (1804-1865). British manufacturer, Radical and Liberal statesman. CDV. VG. $25


POL249.
E&HT Anthony. John Bright. (1811 – 1889), Quaker, was a British Radical and Liberal statesman, associated with Richard Cobden in the formation of the Anti-Corn Law League. He was one of the greatest orators of his generation, and a strong critic of British foreign policy. He sat in the House of Commons from 1843 to 1889. CDV. VG. $20


POL254.
Charles D. Fredricks & Co., NY. Henry Clay. CDV. G. $175

Salmon P. Chase Salmon P. Chase
POL256. Negative from Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E. Anthony, NY.  Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist who served as the sixth Chief Justice of the United States from 1864 to 1873. During his career, Chase was the 23rd Governor of Ohio and U.S. Senator from Ohio prior to service under Abraham Lincoln as the 25th Secretary of the Treasury. As Treasury Secretary, Chase strengthened the federal government, introducing its first paper currency as well as a national bank, both during wartime. Chase articulated the “slave power conspiracy” thesis, devoting his energies to the destruction of what he considered the Slave Power—the conspiracy of Southern slave owners to seize control of the federal government and block the progress of liberty. He coined the slogan of the Free Soil Party, “Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men”. Chief Justice Chase presided over the Senate trial of Andrew Johnson during the President’s impeachment proceedings in 1868. CDV. G. $125

Peter Burnett Peter Burnett
POL258. CDV by Wm. Shew, San Francisco of Peter Hardeman Burnett (November 15, 1807 – May 17, 1895), politician and the first state governor of California, serving from December 20, 1849, to January 9, 1851. He was also the first California governor to resign from office. Burnett previously served briefly during December 1849 as the territorial civilian governor of California. Born in Nashville, Tennessee, but raised in rural Missouri, Burnett received no formal education, but educated himself in law and government. After owning a general store, he turned to his law career; in defending a group of Mormons — including Joseph Smith — who were accused of treason, arson and robbery. Burnett requested a change of venue for the court proceedings, and during transportation to the next venue, the defendants escaped. In 1843, Burnett became part of the exodus of Easterners moving Westward, moving his family to the Oregon Country (now modern-day Oregon) to take up farming in order to solve growing debts in Missouri, an agricultural endeavour that failed. While in the Oregon Country, Burnett began his forays into politics, getting elected to the provisional legislature between 1844 to 1848. In 1844, he completed construction of Germantown Road between the Tualatin Valley and what became Portland. It was during his time in Oregon that Burnett, a traditional Southern Protestant, began to question the practices of his faith, drifting his religious views more to Roman Catholicism. By 1846, Burnett and his family made the complete transition from Protestant to become Catholic. While in the Legislature, and later in the Provisional Supreme Court, Burnett signed Oregon’s first racial exclusion laws. Upon news of the discovery of gold in Coloma, California on January 24, 1848, Burnett and his family moved south to participate in the rush. After modest success in getting gold, Burnett envisioned a career in law in San Francisco, a rapidly growing boom town thanks largely to the Gold Rush. On the way to the Bay Area, Burnett met John Augustus Sutter, Jr., son of German-born Swiss pioneer John Sutter. Selling his father’s deeded lands in the near vicinity of Sutter’s Fort, the younger Sutter offered Burnett a job in selling land plots for the new town of Sacramento. Over the next year, Burnett made nearly $50,000 in land sales in Sacramento, a city ideally suited due to its closeness to the Sierra Nevada and the neighboring Sacramento River’s navigability for large ships. In 1849, Burnett announced his intentions to return to politics. 1849 saw the first California Constitutional Convention in Monterey, where territorial politicians drafted documents suitable to admit California as a state in the United States. During the 1849 referendum to adopt the California Constitution, Burnett, now with name recognition in Sacramento and San Francisco, and a resume that included the Oregon Provisional Legislature, decided to run for the new territory’s first civilian governor, replacing the string of military governors and bureaucracy from the U.S. military. Burnett easily won the election over four other candidates, including John Sutter, and was sworn in as California’s first elected civilian governor on December 20, 1849 in San Jose in front of the California State Legislature. In the first days of the Burnett Administration, the governor and the California Legislature set out to create the organs of a state government, creating state cabinet posts, archives, executive posts and departments, subdividing the state into 27 counties and appointing John C. Fremont and William M. Gwin as California’s senators to the federal U.S. Senate. Despite home proclamations and bureaucratic reorganizations that recognized California now as a U.S. state, the U.S. Congress and President Zachary Taylor had in fact not even signed authorization of statehood for California. Part of this miscommunication was due to California’s relative remoteness to the rest of the U.S. during the time, but also to over-enthusiastic attitudes by politicians and the public alike to get California into the Union as quickly as possible. Following long contentious debates in the U.S. Senate, California was admitted as a (non-slave) state on September 9, 1850 as part of the Compromise of 1850. Californians did not learn of their official statehood until one month later, when on October 18, the steamer Oregon entered San Francisco Bay, with a banner strapped to her rigging reading “California Is Now A State.” During these advancements into statehood, Governor Burnett’s popularity among the State Legislature, the press and the public plummeted. Relations between the Legislature and Burnett began to immediately sour in early 1850, when bills pressing for the incorporation of Sacramento and Los Angeles as city municipalities, with Los Angeles being a special incorporation due to its earlier pueblo status during the previous Spanish and Mexican rule, passed the State Assembly and Senate. Burnett vetoed both bills, citing special incorporation bills as unconstitutional, and that reviews for municipal incorporation were best left to county courts. While the Legislature failed to override Burnett’s veto of the Los Angeles bill, it did however successfully override the Sacramento bill, making Sacramento California’s first incorporated city. As in Oregon, Burnett pushed for the exclusion of blacks from California, raising the ire of pro-slavery supporters who wanted to import the Southern slave system to the West Coast. His proposals were defeated in the Legislature. Similarly, Burnett also pushed for heavy taxation on foreign immigrants. An 1850 Foreign Miners Tax Act, signed into law by Burnett, required every miner of non-American origin to pay $20. In addition to these proposals and laws, Burnett also argued heavily for increased taxation and for the expansion of capital punishment to include larceny. Characterized as an aloof politician with little support from the Legislature by the San Francisco, Sacramento and Los Angeles press, Burnett grew frustrated as his agenda ground to a halt, and his governance style increasingly criticized. He became a regular fixture of ridicule in the state’s newspapers and on the floor of the Legislature. With little over a year in office, Burnett, the first governor of the state, became the first to resign, announcing his resignation in January 1851. Burnett cited personal matters for his departure. Lieutenant Governor John McDougall replaced Burnett as the Governor of California on 9 January. Peter Burnett founded the city of Oregon City in Butte County, California. One year after leaving the governorship, Burnett was finally able to repay the heavy debts he had incurred in Missouri nearly two decades before. He entered a number of careers, serving briefly as a justice in the California Supreme Court between 1857 and 1858, the Sacramento City Council, as well as becoming a San Jose-based lawyer, a noted proponent of Catholicism during the Victorian period, and then the president of the Pacific Bank of San Francisco. Although never venturing into politics much after the 1860s, Burnett was an active supporter of the federal Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. In 1880, he published an autobiography, Recollections and Opinions of an Old Pioneer. He died May 17, 1895 at the age of 87 in San Francisco, and is buried in the Santa Clara Mission Cemetery at Santa Clara, California. Peter Burnett’s legacy is deeply clouded today. While regarded as one of the fathers of modern California in the state’s early days, Burnett’s openly racist attitudes towards blacks, Chinese, and Native Americans have blackened his name today. Burnett’s period in the Oregon Provisional Legislature helped facilitate the exclusion of blacks from the state until 1926. One of his Oregon proposals was to force free blacks to leave the state, and to institute floggings, every six months, of any who continued to remain. Also, his open hostility to foreign laborers influenced a number of federal and state California legislators to push future xenophobic legislation, such as the Chinese Exclusion Act thirty years after his departure from the governorship. Burnett was also an open advocate of exterminating local California Indian tribes, a policy that continued with successive state governmental administrations for several decades, where the state offered $25 to $50 for evidence of dead Natives.
The Burnett Child Development Center, a preschool in a predominantly black San Francisco neighborhood, had been named for Burnett. However, when Burnett’s racist positions were rediscovered, the school was renamed in 2011 to the Leola M. Havard Early Education School, in honor of San Francisco’s first African-American principal. Similarly, the Peter H. Burnett Elementary School in Long Beach has been recently renamed, due to Burnett’s views. It is now named after Bobbi Smith, the first African-American member of the Long Beach Unified School District’s board. VG. $200

pol260 Salmon P. Chase
POL260. Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist who served as the sixth Chief Justice of the United States from 1864 to 1873. During his career, Chase was the 23rd Governor of Ohio and U.S. Senator from Ohio prior to service under Abraham Lincoln as the 25th Secretary of the Treasury. As Treasury Secretary, Chase strengthened the federal government, introducing its first paper currency as well as a national bank, both during wartime. Chase articulated the “slave power conspiracy” thesis, devoting his energies to the destruction of what he considered the Slave Power—the conspiracy of Southern slave owners to seize control of the federal government and block the progress of liberty. He coined the slogan of the Free Soil Party, “Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men”. Chief Justice Chase presided over the Senate trial of Andrew Johnson during the President’s impeachment proceedings in 1868. CDV. VG. $150

pol261 Charles Sumner
POL261. Photographic negative by Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E&HT Anthony. Charles Sumner (January 6, 1811 – March 11, 1874) was an American politician and senator from Massachusetts. As an academic lawyer and a powerful orator, Sumner was the leader of the antislavery forces in Massachusetts and a leader of the Radical Republicans in the United States Senate during the Civil War working to destroy the Confederacy, free all the slaves, and keep on good terms with Europe. During Reconstruction, he fought to minimize the power of the ex-Confederates and guarantee equal rights to the freedmen. Sumner changed his political party several times as anti-slavery coalitions rose and fell in the 1830s and 1840s before coalescing in the 1850s as the Republican Party, the affiliation with which he became best known. He devoted his enormous energies to the destruction of what Republicans called the Slave Power, the influence of Southern slave owners over the federal government, thereby ensuring the survival and expansion of slavery. In 1856, a South Carolina Congressman, Democrat Preston Brooks, nearly killed Sumner on the Senate floor two days after Sumner delivered an intensely anti-slavery speech called “The Crime Against Kansas”. In the speech, Sumner characterized the attacker’s cousin, South Carolina Senator Andrew Butler, a Democrat, as a pimp for slavery. The episode played a major role in the coming of the Civil War. During the war Sumner was a leader of the Radical Republican faction that criticized President Abraham Lincoln for being too moderate on the South. One of the most learned statesmen of the era, he specialized in foreign affairs, and worked closely with Abraham Lincoln to keep the British and the French from intervening on the side of the Confederacy during the Civil War. Sumner’s expertise and energy made him a powerful chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. As the chief Radical leader in the Senate during Reconstruction, Sumner fought hard to provide equal civil and voting rights for the freedmen on the grounds that “consent of the governed” was a basic principle of American republicanism, and to block ex-Confederates from power so they would not reverse the gains made from the Union’s victory in the Civil War. Sumner, teaming with House leader Thaddeus Stevens, battled Andrew Johnson’s reconstruction plans and sought to impose a Radical program on the South. Although Sumner forcefully advocated the annexation of Alaska in the Senate, he was against the annexation of the Dominican Republic, then known by the name of its capital, Santo Domingo. After leading Senators to defeat President Ulysses S. Grant’s Santo Domingo Treaty in 1870, Sumner broke with Grant, and denounced him in such terms that reconciliation was impossible. In 1871, President Grant and his Secretary of State Hamilton Fish retaliated; through Grant’s supporters in the Senate, Sumner was deposed as head of the Foreign Relations Committee. Sumner had become convinced that Grant was a corrupt despot and that the success of Reconstruction policies called for new national leadership. Sumner bitterly opposed Grant’s reelection by supporting the Liberal Republican candidate Horace Greeley in 1872 and lost his power inside the Republican Party. Less than two years later, he died in office. 2-cent revenue stamp on verso. CDV. VG. $150

pol262 Daniel Webster
POL262. Photographic negative from Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E&HT Anthony. Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782 – October 24, 1852) was a leading American senator and statesman during the era of the Second Party System, which was the political system in the United States from about 1828 to 1854, characterized by rapidly increasing voter interest and personal loyalty to parties. Webster was the outstanding spokesman for American nationalism with powerful oratory that made him a key Whig leader. He spoke for conservatives, and led the opposition to Democrat Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party. He was a spokesman for modernization, banking, and industry, but not for the common people who composed the base of his opponents in Jacksonian Democracy. “He was a thoroughgoing elitist, and he reveled in it,” says biographer Robert Remini. During his 40 years in national politics, Webster served in the House of Representatives for eight years (representing New Hampshire and then Massachusetts) and in the Senate for 19 years (representing Massachusetts), and served as the United States Secretary of State under three presidents. One of the highest-regarded courtroom lawyers of the era, Webster shaped several key U.S. Supreme Court cases that established important constitutional precedents that bolstered the authority of the federal government. As a diplomat he is best known for negotiating the Webster-Ashburton Treaty with Great Britain; it established the definitive eastern border between the United States and Canada. Chiefly recognized for his Senate tenure, Webster was a key figure in the institution’s “Golden days”. Webster was the Northern member of the “Great Triumvirate”, with his colleagues Henry Clay from the West (Kentucky) and John C. Calhounfrom the South (South Carolina). His “Reply to Hayne” in 1830 has been regarded as one of the greatest speeches in the senate’s history. As with his fellow Whig Henry Clay, Webster wanted to see the Union preserved and civil war averted. They both worked for compromises to stave off the sectionalism that threatened war between the North and the South. Webster tried and failed three times to become President of the United States. Brady’s 1862 copyright line bottom recto. CDV. VG. $150


POL276. C.M. Bell, Washington, DC.  Cabinet Card of William Eaton Chandler (December 28, 1835 – November 30, 1917), a lawyer who served as United States Secretary of the Navy (1882-1885) and as a Republican U.S. Senator from New Hampshire. VG. $45


POL277. Cabinet Card by C.M. Bell, Washington, DC of Walter Quintin Gresham (March 17, 1832 – May 28, 1895), an American statesman and jurist. He served as a federal judge and in the Cabinet of two presidential administrations. He affiliated with the Republican Party for most of his career but joined the Democratic Party late in life. Gresham began a legal career in Corydon, Indiana after attending the Indiana University Bloomington. He campaigned for the Republican Party in the 1856 elections and won election to the Indiana House of Representatives in 1860. He served as a Union general during the American Civil War, taking part in the Siege of Vicksburg and other major battles. After the war, President Ulysses S. Grant appointed Gresham to a position on the United States District Court for the District of Indiana. Gresham remained on that court until 1883, when he resigned his position to become Postmaster General under President Chester A. Arthur. After briefly serving as Arthur’s Secretary of the Treasury, Gresham accepted appointment to the United States circuit court for the Seventh Circuit. Gresham was a candidate for the presidential nomination at the 1884 Republican National Convention and the 1888 Republican National Convention. Much of his support for those nominations came from agrarian unions like the Farmers’ Alliance. In the 1892 presidential election, Gresham broke with the Republican Party and advocated the election of Democrat Grover Cleveland. After Cleveland won the election, Gresham resigned from the federal bench to serve as Cleveland’s Secretary of State. Gresham held that position until his death in 1895. G. $75


POL280. Cabinet Card by C.M. Bell, Washington, DC of Supreme Court Justice Thomas Stanley Matthews (July 21, 1824 – March 22, 1889), known as Stanley Matthews, an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, serving from May 1881 to his death in 1889. Matthews was the Court’s 46th justice. Before his appointment to the Court by President James A. Garfield, Matthews served as a senator from his home state of Ohio. VG. $45


POL281. Cabinet Card by C.M. Bell, Washington, DC of Supreme Court Justice Joseph Philo Bradley (March 14, 1813 – January 22, 1892), an American jurist best known for his service on the Electoral Commission that decided the disputed 1876 presidential election. VG. $50


POL282.  Cabinet Card by C.M. Bell, Washington, DC of Supreme Court Justice John Marshall Harlan, a Republican from Kentucky who served on the court from 1877-1910. John Marshall Harlan (June 1, 1833 – October 14, 1911) was an American lawyer and politician from Kentucky who served as an associate justice on the U.S. Supreme Court. Harlan was born at Harlan’s Station, 5 miles west of Danville, Kentucky on Salt River Road, in 1833 to a prominent family. He attended school in Frankfortand then graduated from Centre College. Harlan entered Kentucky politics in 1851, and served in a variety of positions, most notably Attorney General of Kentucky, from 1863 to 1867. When the Civil War broke out, Harlan strongly supported the Union, although he opposed the Emancipation Proclamation and supported slavery. However, after the election of Ulysses S. Grant as President in 1868, he reversed his views and became a strong supporter of civil rights. In 1877, Harlan was appointed a member of the Supreme Court. A Christian fundamentalist, Harlan’s Christian beliefs strongly shaped his views during his tenure as Supreme Court justice. He is best known for his role as the lone dissenter in the Civil Rights Cases (1883), and Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), which, respectively, struck down as unconstitutional federal anti-discrimination legislation and upheld southern segregation statutes. These dissents, among others, led to his nickname of “The Great Dissenter.” Harlan died in 1911, at the age of 78. VG. $65

Joseph Holt
POL283. Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E&HT Anthony. Joseph Holt (January 6, 1807 – August 1, 1894) was a leading member of the Buchanan administration and was Judge Advocate General of the United States Army, most notably during the Lincoln assassination trials. Joseph Holt was born in Breckinridge County, Kentucky, on January 6, 1807. He was educated at St. Joseph’s College in Bardstown, Kentucky and Centre College in Danville, Kentucky. He settled in Elizabethtown, Kentucky, and set up a law office in town. He married Mary Harrison and moved to Louisville, Kentucky, in 1832. There, he became assistant editor of the Louisville Public Advertiser and the Commonwealth’s Attorney from 1833 to 1835. Holt moved to Port Gibson, Mississippi, and practiced law there as well as in Natchez, Mississippi and Vicksburg, Mississippi. Holt and his wife contracted tuberculosis. Mary died of it, and Joseph returned to Louisville to recuperate. Holt remarried, to Margaret Wickliffe. In 1857, Holt was appointed Commissioner of Patents by President Buchanan and moved to Washington D.C.. He served until 1859, when Buchanan appointed him Postmaster General. The Buchanan administration was shaken in December 1860 and January 1861, when the Confederacy was formed and many cabinet members resigned, but Holt was both against slavery and strongly for the Union. He was appointed Secretary of War upon the resignation of John B. Floyd of Virginia. Holt served as Secretary of War until the end of Buchanan’s presidency. Holt joined the Army as a colonel in 1862 and was appointed by President Abraham Lincoln to be the Judge Advocate General of the Union Army; two years later, he was promoted to brigadier general. He was the first Judge Advocate General to hold a general’s rank. He personally prosecuted the court-martial against Major General Fitz John Porter for crimes of disobedience of a lawful order and misbehavior in front of the enemy. Lincoln also offered Holt the position of Secretary of the Interior that same year and Attorney General later in 1864, but Holt declined both offices. He was one of the many politicians considered for the Republican Vice Presidential nomination in 1864. It went to Andrew Johnson, and Lincoln was re-elected. On April 14, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated by Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth. Booth’s accomplice, Lewis Powell seriously injured Secretary of State Seward, and Vice President Johnson was also targeted. Holt prepared an order for the signature of Johnson for the arrest of Confederate President Jefferson Davis and five other suspects. Booth was caught on April 26, 1865 but killed by Boston Corbett, a soldier who violated orders. As Judge Advocate General of the Army, Holt was the chief prosecutor in the trial of the accused conspirators before a military commission chaired by General David Hunter. Two assistant judge advocates, John Bingham and General Henry Lawrence Burnett assisted Holt. The defendants were George Atzerodt, David Herold, Powell, Samuel Arnold, Michael O’Laughlen, Edman Spangler, Samuel Mudd, and Mary Surratt. The trial began on May 10, 1865 and lasted two months. Holt and Bingham attempted to obscure the fact that there were two plots. The first plot was to kidnap Lincoln and exchange him for Confederate prisoners held by the Union. The second was to assassinate Lincoln, Johnson, and Seward and so throw the government into chaos. It was important for the prosecution not to reveal the existence of a diary taken from the body of Booth. The diary made it clear that the assassination plan dated from 14 April. Surprisingly, the defense did not call for Booth’s diary to be produced in court. Holt was accused of withholding evidence, but it was never proven. On June 29, 1865, the eight were found guilty of conspiracy to kill the President. Arnold, O’Laughlen, and Mudd were sentenced to life in prison, Spangler to six years in prison, and Atzerodt, Herold, Powell, and Surratt to be hanged, the first woman ever to be executed by the US federal government. They were executed July 7, 1865. O’Laughlen died in prison in 1867. Arnold, Spangler, and Mudd were pardoned by Johnson in early 1869. Accusations still remain that Surratt’s sentence of hanging had been reduced before the hanging. Holt’s public image was besmirched by the trial and his prosecution of it, and many historians believe that the controversy surrounding it ended Holt’s political career. In 1866, Holt issued a pamphlet, titled Vindication of Judge Advocate General Holt From the Foul Slanders of Traitors, Confessed Perjurers and Suborners, Acting in the Interest of Jefferson Davis, in which he attempted to defend himself against the various allegations and clear up some of the confusion stemming from the trial. Holt served as Judge Advocate General until he retired on December 1, 1875. He had a quiet retirement and died in Washington on August 1, 1894. He is buried in the Holt Family Cemetery in Addison, Kentucky. Holt County, Nebraska is named after him, as is the hamlet of Holtsville, New York and the town of Holt, Michigan. CDV. G. $150


POL284. No ID. Charles Sumner (January 6, 1811 – March 11, 1874) was an American politician and senator from Massachusetts. As an academic lawyer and a powerful orator, Sumner was the leader of the antislavery forces in Massachusetts and a leader of the Radical Republicans in the United States Senate during the Civil War working to destroy the Confederacy, free all the slaves, and keep on good terms with Europe. During Reconstruction, he fought to minimize the power of the ex-Confederates and guarantee equal rights to the freedmen. Sumner changed his political party several times as anti-slavery coalitions rose and fell in the 1830s and 1840s before coalescing in the 1850s as the Republican Party, the affiliation with which he became best known. He devoted his enormous energies to the destruction of what Republicans called the Slave Power, the influence of Southern slave owners over the federal government, thereby ensuring the survival and expansion of slavery. In 1856, a South Carolina Congressman, Democrat Preston Brooks, nearly killed Sumner on the Senate floor two days after Sumner delivered an intensely anti-slavery speech called “The Crime Against Kansas”. In the speech, Sumner characterized the attacker’s cousin, South Carolina Senator Andrew Butler, a Democrat, as a pimp for slavery. The episode played a major role in the coming of the Civil War. During the war Sumner was a leader of the Radical Republican faction that criticized President Abraham Lincoln for being too moderate on the South. One of the most learned statesmen of the era, he specialized in foreign affairs, and worked closely with Abraham Lincoln to keep the British and the French from intervening on the side of the Confederacy during the Civil War. Sumner’s expertise and energy made him a powerful chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. As the chief Radical leader in the Senate during Reconstruction, Sumner fought hard to provide equal civil and voting rights for the freedmen on the grounds that “consent of the governed” was a basic principle of American republicanism, and to block ex-Confederates from power so they would not reverse the gains made from the Union’s victory in the Civil War. Sumner, teaming with House leader Thaddeus Stevens, battled Andrew Johnson’s reconstruction plans and sought to impose a Radical program on the South. Although Sumner forcefully advocated the annexation of Alaska in the Senate, he was against the annexation of the Dominican Republic, then known by the name of its capital, Santo Domingo. After leading Senators to defeat President Ulysses S. Grant’s Santo Domingo Treaty in 1870, Sumner broke with Grant, and denounced him in such terms that reconciliation was impossible. In 1871, President Grant and his Secretary of State Hamilton Fish retaliated; through Grant’s supporters in the Senate, Sumner was deposed as head of the Foreign Relations Committee. Sumner had become convinced that Grant was a corrupt despot and that the success of Reconstruction policies called for new national leadership. Sumner bitterly opposed Grant’s reelection by supporting the Liberal Republican candidate Horace Greeley in 1872 and lost his power inside the Republican Party. Less than two years later, he died in office. 2-cent revenue stamp on verso. CDV. VG. $150


POL286. Photographic negative by Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E&HT Anthony. Edwin M. Stanton, Lincoln’s Secretary of War. Bottom corners clipped. G+. $150


POL289. Silsbee, Case & Co., Boston. Lincoln’s Secretary of State William Seward. VG. $125


POL290. Photographic negative by Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E&HT Anthony. Lincoln’s Treasury Secretary Salmon P. Chase. VG. $150


POL291. D. Appleton & Co., NY. Lincoln’s Attorney General Edward Bates. VG. $100


POL292. Photographic negative by Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E. Anthony. Secretary of the Navy under Lincoln Gideon Welles. VG. $150


POL293. Photographic negative by Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E&HT Anthony. Lincoln’s Postmaster General Montgomery Blair. VG. $150


POL294. Photographic negative by Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E&HT Anthony. James Murray Mason (November 3, 1798 – April 28, 1871) was a US Representative and US Senator from Virginia. He was a grandson of George Mason and represented the Confederate States of America as appointed commissioner of the Confederacy to the United Kingdom and France between 1861 and 1865, during the Civil War. In November 1861, Mason was among those captured by Federal troops during the Trent Affair in November 1861 while he was on a mission to England. G-. $75


POL295. Photographic negative by Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E. Anthony. John Cabell Breckinridge (January 16, 1821 – May 17, 1875) was a lawyer, politician, and soldier. He represented Kentucky in both houses of Congress and became the 14th and youngest-ever Vice President of the United States, serving from 1857 to 1861. He was a member of the Democratic party. He served in the U.S. Senate during the outbreak of the Civil War, but was expelled after joining the Confederate Army. He was appointed Confederate Secretary of War in 1865.  VG. $100


POL296. E&HT Anthony. Charles James Faulkner (July 6, 1806 – November 1, 1884) was a nineteenth-century politician and lawyer from Virginia and West Virginia. Faulkner was born in Martinsburg, Berkeley County, Virginia (now West Virginia). Faulkner graduated from Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. in 1822, studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1829. As an adult, Faulkner practiced law in Berkeley County. He was elected a member of the Virginia House of Delegates 1832-33. Soon after Faulkner was appointed a commissioner to report on the boundary between Virginia and Maryland. Later in his career, Faulkner was elected to the Virginia State Senate in 1841, and again to the General Assembly in 1848. In 1848 he introduced in the Virginia House of Delegates a law after which the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was modeled. In 1850, Faulkner was elected to the Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1850.  Faulkner was a U.S. Representative from 1851 to 1858. Entering Congress as a Whig, during the next Congress Faulkner was elected as a Democrat, which he remained for the rest of his Congressional career. In Congress he served as chairman of the Committee on Military Affairs from 1857 to 1859. He was appointed by President James Buchanan Minister to France in 1860, serving until he was arrested in August 1861 on charges of negotiating sales of arms for the Confederacy while in Paris, France. He was imprisoned at Fort Warren in Boston. Faulkner was released in December after negotiating his own exchange for Alfred Ely, a New York congressman who was captured at the First Battle of Bull Run. During the Civil War, Faulkner enlisted in the Confederate Army and was a lieutenant colonel and assistant adjutant general on the staff of General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson. Faulkner engaged in railroad enterprises after the war and was a member of the West Virginia Constitutional Convention again in 1872. He was elected back to the House of Representatives as a Democrat from West Virginia in 1874, serving again from 1875 to 1877. Afterward, he resumed practicing law until his death. G. $100


POL297. Photographic negative by Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E&HT Anthony. Thomas Howell Cobb (September 7, 1815 – October 9, 1868) was a southern Democrat who was a five-term member of the House of Representatives and Speaker of the House from 1849 to 1851. He also served as the 40th Governor of Georgia (1851–1853) and as a Secretary of the Treasury under President James Buchanan(1857–1860). Cobb is, however, probably best known as one of the founders of the Confederacy, having served as the President of the Provisional Congress of the Confederate States. Delegates of the Southern slave states declared that they had seceded from the United States and created the Confederate States of America. Cobb served for two weeks between the foundation of the Confederacy and the election of Jefferson Davis as its first President. As the Speaker of the Congress, he was provisional Head of State at this time. VG. $100


POL298. Brady, Washington. Leslie Combs (November 28, 1793 – August 22, 1881) was a lawyer and politician from Kentucky. He served under William Henry Harrison and Green Clay during the War of 1812 and was captured in 1813. After his release, he studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1818. In 1827, he was elected as a Whig to the first of several non-consecutive terms in the Kentucky House of Representatives. He was re-elected in 1833, 1845, and 1857, and served as Speaker of the House in 1846. He lost a bid for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives to Democrat John C. Breckinridge in 1851. His last political office was clerk of the Kentucky Court of Appeals, which he held from 1860 to 1866, when he retired from public life. He died in 1881 and was buried in Frankfort Cemetery. VG. $100


POL299. Photographic negative by Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E. Anthony. Albert Gallatin Brown (May 31, 1813 – June 12, 1880) was Governor of Mississippi from 1844 to 1848 and a Democrat United States Senator from Mississippi from 1854 to 1861, when he withdrew during secession. VG. $100


POL300. J. Gurney & Son, NY. Charles James Faulkner (July 6, 1806 – November 1, 1884) was a nineteenth-century politician and lawyer from Virginia and West Virginia. Faulkner was born in Martinsburg, Berkeley County, Virginia (now West Virginia). Faulkner graduated from Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. in 1822, studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1829. As an adult, Faulkner practiced law in Berkeley County. He was elected a member of the Virginia House of Delegates 1832-33. Soon after Faulkner was appointed a commissioner to report on the boundary between Virginia and Maryland. Later in his career, Faulkner was elected to the Virginia State Senate in 1841, and again to the General Assembly in 1848. In 1848 he introduced in the Virginia House of Delegates a law after which the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was modeled. In 1850, Faulkner was elected to the Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1850.  Faulkner was a U.S. Representative from 1851 to 1858. Entering Congress as a Whig, during the next Congress Faulkner was elected as a Democrat, which he remained for the rest of his Congressional career. In Congress he served as chairman of the Committee on Military Affairs from 1857 to 1859. He was appointed by President James Buchanan Minister to France in 1860, serving until he was arrested in August 1861 on charges of negotiating sales of arms for the Confederacy while in Paris, France. He was imprisoned at Fort Warren in Boston. Faulkner was released in December after negotiating his own exchange for Alfred Ely, a New York congressman who was captured at the First Battle of Bull Run. During the Civil War, Faulkner enlisted in the Confederate Army and was a lieutenant colonel and assistant adjutant general on the staff of General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson. Faulkner engaged in railroad enterprises after the war and was a member of the West Virginia Constitutional Convention again in 1872. He was elected back to the House of Representatives as a Democrat from West Virginia in 1874, serving again from 1875 to 1877. Afterward, he resumed practicing law until his death. G. $100


POL301. Photographic negative by Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E. Anthony. James Lawrence Orr (5/12/22-5/5/73) was a US Congressman, Civil War CSA Congressman, 41st South Carolina Governor, US Diplomat. A lawyer and newspaperman, he was elected as a Democrat to represent South Carolina’s 2nd, then 6th Congressional District in the United States House of Representatives, serving from 1849 to 1859. From 1857 to 1859 he served as Speaker of the House. In December 1860 he was a delegate to the South Carolina Secession Convention, and signed the state’s Ordnance of Secession. When the Civil War started, he helped raise a regiment of South Carolina infantry that became known as Orr’s Rifles. He was elected Colonel of the unit, and commanded it until his resignation in 1862. He then served briefly as a South Carolina delegate to the Confederate House of Representatives before being elected to the Confederate States Senate in 1862. He served in that seat through the end of the war and the defeat of the Confederacy. In 1865 he was elected as provisional Governor of South Carolina, serving until 1868. During his tenure the state was under Union military rule, and much of the administration of the state came under the auspices of the military commander, Major General Edward R.S. Canby. After his gubernatorial term ended, he was elected by the state legislature as a district judge. In 1872 he was appointed by President Ulysses S. Grant as United States Minister to the Empire of Russia, serving until he died in office in 1873. VG. $125


POL302. E&HT Anthony. Pierre Soulé (August 31, 1801 – March 26, 1870) was a Franco-American attorney, politician, and diplomat during the mid-19th century. Serving as a United States Senator from Louisiana from 1849 to 1853, he resigned to accept appointment as U.S. Minister to Spain, a post he held until 1855. He is likely best known for his role in writing the 1854 Ostend Manifesto, part of an attempt by Southern slaveholders to gain support for the US to annex Cuba to the United States. Some Southern planters wanted to expand their territory to the Caribbean and into Central America. The Manifesto was roundly denounced, especially by anti-slavery elements, and Soulé was personally criticized. Born and raised in France, Soulé was exiled for revolutionary activities. He moved to Great Britain and then the United States, where he settled in New Orleans and became an attorney, later entering politics. VG. $100


POL303. Photographic negative by Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E&HT Anthony. William Campbell Preston (December 27, 1794 – May 22, 1860) was a senator from South Carolina (1833-1842) and a member of the Nullifier party, and later Whig Parties. VG. $85


POL304. E&HT Anthony. Herschel Vespasian Johnson (September 18, 1812 – August 16, 1880) was an American politician. He was the 41st Governor of Georgia from 1853 to 1857 and the vice presidential nominee of the Douglas wing of the Democratic Party in the 1860 U.S. presidential election. He also served as one of Georgia’s Confederate States senators. VG. $100


POL305. Photographic negative by Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E&HT Anthony. Hannibal Hamlin (August 27, 1809 – July 4, 1891) was an  attorney and politician from the state of Maine. In a public service career that spanned over 50 years, he is most notable for having served as the 15th Vice President of the United States. The first Republican to hold the office, Hamlin served from 1861 to 1865. He is considered among the most influential politicians to have come from Maine. A native of Paris, Maine, (then part of Massachusetts) Hamlin managed his father’s farm before becoming a newspaper editor. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1833, and began to practice in Hampden, Maine. Originally a Democrat, Hamlin began his political career with election to the Maine House of Representatives in 1835 and an appointment to the military staff of the Governor of Maine. As an officer in the militia, he took part in the 1839 negotiations that helped end the Aroostook War. In the 1840s Hamlin was elected and served in the United States House of Representatives. In 1848 the state house elected him to the United States Senate, where he served until January 1857. He served temporarily as governor for six weeks in the beginning of 1857, after which he returned to the Senate. Hamlin was an active opponent of slavery; he supported the Wilmot Proviso and opposed the Compromise Measures of 1850. In 1854, he strongly opposed passage of the Kansas–Nebraska Act. Hamlin’s increasingly anti-slavery views caused him to leave the Democratic Party for the newly formed Republican Party in 1856. In 1860, Hamlin was the Republican nominee for Vice President; selected to run with Abraham Lincoln, who was from Illinois, Hamlin was chosen in part to bring geographic balance to the ticket and in part because as a former Democrat, he could work to convince other anti-slavery Democrats that their future lay with the Republican Party. The Lincoln and Hamlin ticket was successful, and Hamlin served as Vice President from 1861 to 1865, which included the majority of the Civil War. The first Republican Vice President, Hamlin held the office in an era when the office was considered more a part of the legislative branch than the executive; he was not personally close to Lincoln and did not play a major role in his administration. Even so, Hamlin supported the administration’s legislative program in his role as presiding officer of the Senate, and he looked for other ways to demonstrate his support for the Union, including a term of service in a Maine militia unit during the war. For the 1864 election, Hamlin was replaced as Vice Presidential nominee by Andrew Johnson, a Southern Democrat chosen for his appeal to Southern Unionists. After leaving the vice presidency, Hamlin served as Collector of the Port of Boston, a lucrative post to which he was appointed by Johnson after the latter succeeded to the presidency following Lincoln’s assassination. However, Hamlin later resigned as Collector because of his disagreement with Johnson over Reconstruction of the former Confederacy. In 1869, Hamlin was elected again to the U.S. Senate, and he served two terms. After leaving the Senate in 1881, he served briefly as United States Ambassador to Spain before returning to Maine in late 1882. In retirement, Hamlin was a resident of Bangor, Maine, where he died in 1891. He was buried at Mount Hope Cemetery in Bangor. G-. $100


POL306. Photographic negative by Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E. Anthony. William Lowndes Yancey (August 10, 1814 – July 27, 1863) was a journalist, politician, orator, diplomat and an leader of the Southern secession movement. A member of the group known as the Fire-Eaters, Yancey was one of the most-effective agitators for secession and rhetorical defenders of slavery. An early critic of John C. Calhoun and nullification, by the late 1830s Yancey began to identify with Calhoun and the struggle against the forces of the anti-slavery movement. In 1849, Yancey was a firm supporter of Calhoun’s “Southern Address” and an adamant opponent of the Compromise of 1850. Throughout the 1850s, Yancey, sometimes referred to as the “Orator of Secession”, demonstrated the ability to hold large audiences under his spell for hours at a time. At the 1860 Democratic National Convention, Yancey, a leading opponent of Stephen A. Douglas and the concept of popular sovereignty, was instrumental in splitting the party into Northern and Southern factions. At the 1860 convention, he used the phrase “squatter sovereignty” in a speech he gave to describe popular sovereignty. During the Civil War, Yancey was appointed by Confederate President Jefferson Davis to head a diplomatic delegation to Europe in the attempt to secure formal recognition of Southern independence. In these efforts, Yancey was unsuccessful and frustrated. Upon his return to America in 1862, Yancey was elected to the Confederate States Senate, where he was a frequent critic of the Davis Administration. Suffering from ill health for much of his life, Yancey died during the Civil War, in July 1863 at the age of 48. VG. $125


POL307. Bogardus, NY. John Parker Hale (March 31, 1806 – November 19, 1873) was a politician and lawyer from New Hampshire. He served in the United States House of Representatives from 1843 to 1845 and in the United States Senate from 1847 to 1853 and again from 1855 to 1865. He began his Congressional career as a Democrat, but helped establish the anti-slavery Free Soil Party and eventually joined the Republican Party. Born in Rochester, New Hampshire, Hale established a legal practice in Dover, New Hampshire after graduating from Bowdoin College. Hale won election to the New Hampshire House of Representatives in 1832 and served as the United States Attorney for New Hampshire under President Andrew Jackson and President Martin Van Buren. He won election to the United States House of Representatives in 1842 but was denied the party’s nomination in 1844 due to his opposition to the annexation of Texas. After losing his seat, he continued to campaign against slavery and won election to the Senate in 1846 as an Independent Democrat. In the Senate, he strongly opposed the Mexican–American War and continued to speak against slavery. Hale helped establish the anti-slavery Free Soil Party and was a candidate for the party’s presidential nomination in 1848, but the 1848 Free Soil Convention instead nominated former President Van Buren. He won the party’s presidential nomination in 1852, receiving 4.9% of the popular vote in the general election. After the passage of the Kansas–Nebraska Act, Hale joined the nascent Republican Party and returned to the Senate. He served until 1865, at which point he accepted an appointment from President Abraham Lincoln to serve as the Minister to Spain. He held that post until he was recalled in April 1869, at which point he retired from public office. G. $125


POL308. Photographic negative by Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E. Anthony. Henry Wilson (born Jeremiah Jones Colbath; February 16, 1812 – November 22, 1875) was the 18th Vice President of the United States (1873–75) and a Senator from Massachusetts (1855–73). Before and during the Civil War, he was a leading Republican, and a strong opponent of slavery. He devoted his energies to the destruction of the “Slave Power” – the faction of slave owners and their political allies which anti-slavery Americans saw as dominating the country. Originally a Whig, Wilson was a founder of the Free Soil Party in 1848. He served as the party chairman before and during the 1852 presidential election. He worked diligently to build an anti-slavery coalition, which came to include the Free Soil Party, anti-slavery Democrats, New York Barnburners, the Liberty Party, anti-slavery members of the Native American Party (Know Nothings), and anti-slavery Whigs (called Conscience Whigs). When the Free Soil party dissolved in the mid-1850s, Wilson joined the Republican Party, which he helped found, and which was organized largely in line with the anti-slavery coalition he had nurtured in the 1840s and 1850s. While a Senator during the Civil War, Wilson was considered a “Radical Republican,” and his experience as a militia general, organizer and commander of a Union Army regiment, and chairman of the Senate military committees enabled him to assist the Lincoln administration in the organization and oversight of the Union Army and Union Navy. Wilson successfully authored bills that outlawed slavery in Washington, D.C., and incorporated African Americans in the Civil War effort in 1862. After the Civil War, he supported the Radical Republican program for Reconstruction. In 1872, he was elected Vice President as the running mate of Ulysses S. Grant, the incumbent President of the United States, who was running for a second term. The Grant and Wilson ticket was successful, and Wilson served as Vice President from March 4, 1873, until his death on November 22, 1875. Wilson’s effectiveness as Vice President was limited after he suffered a debilitating stroke in May 1873, and his health continued to decline until he was the victim of a fatal stroke while working in the United States Capitol in late 1875. Throughout his career, Wilson was known for championing causes that were at times unpopular, including the abolition of slavery and workers’ rights for both blacks and whites. Massachusetts politician George F. Hoar, who served in the House of Representatives while Wilson was a Senator, and later served in the Senate himself, believed Wilson to be the most skilled political organizer in the country. However, Wilson’s reputation for personal integrity and principled politics was somewhat damaged late in his Senate career by his involvement in the Crédit Mobilier scandal. VG. $125


POL309. No ID. Clement Laird Vallandigham ( July 29, 1820 – June 17, 1871) was an Ohio politician and leader of the Copperhead faction of anti-war Democrats during the Civil War. He served two terms in the House of Representatives. In 1863, he was convicted at an Army court martial of opposing the war, and exiled to the Confederacy. He ran for governor of Ohio in 1863 from exile in Canada, but was defeated. G. $75


POL310. Photographic negative by Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E. Anthony. Henry Alexander Wise (December 3, 1806 – September 12, 1876) was an lawyer and politician from Virginia. He was a U.S. Representative and Governor of Virginia, and US Minister to Brazil. During the Civil War, he was a general in the Confederate States Army. He was the father of Richard Alsop Wise and John Sergeant Wise, who both served as U.S. Representatives. G-. $95


POL311. E&HT Anthony. Roger Atkinson Pryor (July 19, 1828 – March 14, 1919) was a Virginian newspaper editor and politician who became known for his fiery oratory in favor of secession; he was elected both to national and Confederate office, and served as a general for the Confederate Army during the Civil War. In 1865 he moved to New York City to remake his life, and in 1868 brought up his family. He was among a number of influential southerners in the North who became known as “Confederate carpetbaggers.” He became a law partner with Benjamin F. Butler (based in Boston), noted in the South as a hated Union general during the war. Their partnership was financially successful, and Pryor became active in the Democratic Party in the North. In 1877 he was chosen to give a Decoration Day address, in which, according to one interpretation, he vilified Reconstruction and promoted the Lost Cause, while reconciling the noble soldiers as victims of politicians. In 1890 he joined the Sons of the American Revolution, one of the new heritage societies that was created following celebration of the United States Centennial. He was appointed as judge of the New York Court of Common Pleas from 1890 to 1894, and justice of the New York Supreme Court from 1894 to his retirement in 1899. On April 10, 1912, he was appointed official referee by the appellate division of the state Supreme Court, where he served until his death. He and his wife Sara Agnes Rice Pryor, also a Virginian, had seven children together, the last born in 1868. Active in founding several heritage societies, she organized fundraising for historic preservation. She was a writer and had several works: histories, memoirs, and novels, published by the Macmillan Company in the first decade of the twentieth century. Her memoirs have been important sources for historians doing research on southern society during and after the Civil War. G. $100.


POL312. Photographic negative by Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E. Anthony. Daniel Stevens Dickinson (September 11, 1800 – April 12, 1866) was a New York politician, most notable as a United States Senator from 1844 to 1851. VG. $100


POL314. No ID. Judah Philip Benjamin, (August 11, 1811 – May 6, 1884) was a lawyer and politician who was a United States Senator from Louisiana, a Cabinet officer of the Confederate States and, after his escape to the United Kingdom at the end of the Civil War, an English barrister. Benjamin was the first Jew to be elected to the United States Senate who had not renounced that faith, and was the first Jew to hold a Cabinet position in North America. Benjamin was born to Sephardic Jewish parents from London, who had moved to St. Croix in the Danish West Indies when it was occupied by Britain during the Napoleonic Wars. Seeking greater opportunities, his family immigrated to the United States, eventually settling in Charleston, South Carolina. Judah Benjamin attended Yale College but left without graduating. He moved to New Orleans, where he read law and passed the bar. Benjamin rose rapidly both at the bar and in politics. He became a wealthy planter and slave owner and was elected to and served in both houses of the Louisiana legislature prior to his election by the legislature to the US Senate in 1852. There, he was an eloquent supporter of slavery. After Louisiana seceded in 1861, Benjamin resigned as senator and returned to New Orleans. He soon moved to Richmond after Confederate President Jefferson Davis appointed him as Attorney General. Benjamin had little to do in that position, but Davis was impressed by his competence and appointed him as Secretary of War. Benjamin firmly supported Davis, and the President reciprocated the loyalty by promoting him to Secretary of State in March 1862, while Benjamin was being criticized for the rebel defeat at the Battle of Roanoke Island. As Secretary of State, Benjamin attempted to gain official recognition for the Confederacy by France and the United Kingdom, but his efforts were ultimately unsuccessful. To preserve the Confederacy as military defeats made its situation increasingly desperate, he advocated freeing and arming the slaves, but his proposals were not accepted until it was too late. When Davis fled the Confederate capital of Richmond in early 1865, Benjamin went with him. He left the presidential party and was successful in escaping from the mainland United States, but Davis was captured by Union troops. Benjamin sailed to Great Britain, where he settled and became a barrister, again rising to the top of his profession before retiring in 1883. He died in Paris the following year. G. $95


POL315. Photographic negative by Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E&HT Anthony. William Pitt Fessenden (October 16, 1806 – September 8, 1869) was a politician from Maine. Fessenden was a Whig (later a Republican) and member of the Fessenden political family. He served in the United States House of Representatives and Senate before becoming Secretary of the Treasury under President Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War. A lawyer, he was a leading antislavery Whig in Maine; in Congress, he fought the Slave Power (the plantation owners who controlled southern states). He built an antislavery coalition in the state legislature that elected him to the U.S. Senate; it became Maine’s Republican organization. In the Senate, Fessenden played a central role in the debates on Kansas, denouncing the expansion of slavery. He led Radical Republicans in attacking Democrats Stephen Douglas, Franklin Pierce, and James Buchanan. Fessenden’s speeches were read widely, influencing Republicans such as Abraham Lincoln and building support for Lincoln’s 1860 Republican presidential nomination. During the war, Senator Fessenden helped shape the Union’s taxation and financial policies. He moderated his earlier radicalism, and supported Lincoln against the Radicals, becoming Lincoln’s Treasury Secretary. After the war, Fessenden was back in the Senate, as chair of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, which established terms for resuming congressional representation for the southern states, and which drafted the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Later, Fessenden provided critical support that prevented Senate conviction of President Andrew Johnson, who had been impeached by the House. He was the first Republican Senator to ring out “…not guilty” followed by six other Republican Senators resulting in the acquittal of President Johnson. He is the only person to have three streets in Portland named for him: William, Pitt and Fessenden streets in the city’s Oakdale neighborhood. G. $125


POL316. Photographic negative by Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E. Anthony. Alexander Hamilton Stephens (February 11, 1812 – March 4, 1883) was an American politician who served as the 50th Governor of Georgia from 1882 until his death in 1883. He also served as the only Vice President of the Confederate States from 1861 to 1865. A member of the Democratic Party, Stephens represented the state of Georgia in the United States House of Representatives prior to becoming governor. Stephens attended Franklin College and established a legal practice in his home town of Crawfordville, Georgia. After serving in both houses of the Georgia General Assembly, he won election to Congress, taking his seat in 1843. He became a leading Southern Whig and strongly opposed the Mexican–American War. After the war, Stephens was a prominent supporter of the Compromise of 1850 and helped draft the Georgia Platform, which opposed secession. A proponent of the expansion of slavery into the territories, Stephens also helped pass the Kansas–Nebraska Act. As the Whig Party collapsed in the 1850s, Stephens eventually joined the Democratic Party and worked with President James Buchanan to admit Kansas as a state under the Lecompton Constitution. Stephens declined to seek re-election in 1858, but continued to publicly advocate against secession. After Georgia and other Southern states seceded and formed the Confederate States of America, Stephens was elected as the Confederate Vice President. Stephens’s Cornerstone Speech of March 1861 defended slavery in the most uncompromising terms, though after the war he tried to distance himself from his earlier sentiments. In the course of the war, he became increasingly critical of President Jefferson Davis’s policies, especially conscription and the suspension of habeas corpus. In February 1865, he was one of the commissioners who met with Abraham Lincoln at the abortive Hampton Roads Conference to discuss peace terms. After the war, Stephens was imprisoned until October 1865. The following year, the Georgia legislature elected Stephens to the United States Senate, but the Senate declined to seat him due to his role in the Civil War. He won election to the House of Representatives in 1873 and held that office until 1882, when he resigned from Congress to become Governor of Georgia. Stephens served as governor until his death in March 1883. VG. $200


POL317. Photographic negative by Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E. Anthony. Robert Augustus Toombs (July 2, 1810 – December 15, 1885) was a lawyer, slaveholder and politician who became one of the organizers of the Confederacy and its first Secretary of State. He served in Jefferson Davis’ cabinet as well as in the Confederate States Army, but later became one of Davis’ critics, and only reluctantly returned to the United States after the Confederate defeat and regained political power as Congressional Reconstruction ended. A lawyer by training, Toombs gained renown as speaker in the U.S. House of Representatives, and later in the U.S. Senate. A slaveholder, he found common ground with fellow-Georgian Alexander H. Stephens and advocated states’ rights and extending slavery. Toombs supported the Compromise of 1850, but later advocated secession. Toombs had always made a powerful impression on the public with his emotive oratory, backed by a strong physical presence, but his intemperate habits and volatile personality limited his career potential. In the newly formed Confederate Government, Toombs was appointed Secretary of State, but criticized the attack on Fort Sumter, which put him at odds with President Jefferson Davis (whose position he had coveted), and he quit to join the Confederate States Army. He became a Brigadier-General, and was wounded at the Battle of Antietam. In 1863, Toombs resigned his commission in the Confederate Army to join the Georgia militia. He was subsequently denied higher promotion and resigned, continuing to feud with Davis to the last. When the war ended, he fled to Cuba, later returning to Georgia. VG. $125


POL318. Photographic negative by Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E&HT Anthony. John Buchanan Floyd (June 1, 1806 – August 26, 1863) was the 31st Governor of Virginia, U.S. Secretary of War, and the Confederate general in the Civil War who lost the crucial Battle of Fort Donelson. G. $100


POL321. Brady & Co.’s National Photographic Portrait Galleries, Washington, DC and NY. Jefferson Finis Davis (June 3, 1808 – December 6, 1889) was a politician who served as the only President of the Confederate States from 1861 to 1865. As a member of the Democratic Party, he represented Mississippi in the United States Senate and the House of Representatives prior to switching allegiance to the Confederacy. He was appointed as the United States Secretary of War, serving from 1853 to 1857, under President Franklin Pierce. Davis was born in Fairview, Kentucky, to a moderately prosperous farmer, the youngest of ten children. He grew up in Wilkinson County, Mississippi, and also lived in Louisiana. His eldest brother Joseph Emory Davis secured the younger Davis’s appointment to the United States Military Academy. After graduating, Jefferson Davis served six years as a lieutenant in the United States Army. He fought in the Mexican–American War (1846–1848), as the colonel of a volunteer regiment. Before the Civil War, he operated a large cotton plantation in Mississippi, which his brother Joseph gave him, and owned as many as 74 slaves. Although Davis argued against secession in 1858, he believed that states had an unquestionable right to leave the Union. Davis married Sarah Knox Taylor, who died of malaria after three months of marriage. Davis himself also struggled with recurring bouts of the disease. He was unhealthy for much of his life. At the age of 36, Davis married again, to 18-year-old Varina Howell, a native of Natchez, Mississippi, who had been educated in Philadelphia and had some family ties in the North. They had six children. Only two survived him, and only one married and had children. Many historians attribute some of the Confederacy’s weaknesses to the poor leadership of Davis. His preoccupation with detail, reluctance to delegate responsibility, lack of popular appeal, feuds with powerful state governors and generals, favoritism toward old friends, inability to get along with people who disagreed with him, neglect of civil matters in favor of military ones, and resistance to public opinion all worked against him. Historians agree he was a much less effective war leader than his Union counterpart, President Abraham Lincoln. After Davis was captured in 1865, he was accused of treason and imprisoned at Fort Monroe. He was never tried and was released after two years. While not disgraced, Davis had been displaced in ex-Confederate affection after the war by his leading general, Robert E. Lee. Davis wrote a memoir entitled The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government, which he completed in 1881. By the late 1880s, he began to encourage reconciliation, telling Southerners to be loyal to the Union. Ex-Confederates came to appreciate his role in the war, seeing him as a Southern patriot. He became a hero of the Lost Cause in the post-Reconstruction South. G. $200


POL322. No ID. John Albion Andrew (May 31, 1818 – October 30, 1867) was an American lawyer and politician from Massachusetts. He was elected in 1860 as the 25th Governor of Massachusetts, serving between 1861 and 1866, and led the state’s contributions to the Union cause during the  Civil War (1861-1865). He was a guiding force behind the creation of some of the first African-American units in the United States Army, including the 54th Massachusetts Infantry. Educated at Bowdoin College, Andrew was a radical abolitionist of slavery from an early age, engaged in the legal defense of fugitive slaves against owners seeking their return. He provided legal support to John Brown after his 1859 raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia, raising his profile and propelling him to the Massachusetts governor’s chair. Andrew was a persistent voice criticizing 16th President Abraham Lincoln’s conduct of the war, and pressing him to end slavery. By the end of the war, his politics had moderated, and he came to support Lincoln’s former Vice President, a War Democrat, now 17th President Andrew Johnson’s Reconstruction agenda. In Massachusetts, Andrew opposed the Know Nothing movement of the 1850s and the state’s strict alcohol prohibition laws, and oversaw the state takeover of the Hoosac Tunnel construction project. In 1865, he signed legislation establishing the Massachusetts State Police, the first statewide police force of its type in the nation. He died early of apoplexy at the age of 49. G. $35


POL323. Mora, NY. Lyman Tremain (June 14, 1819 – November 30, 1878) was a jurist and politician from New York. He was admitted to the bar in 1840 and practiced in Durham, NY where he was elected to his first political office as town supervisor in 1842. He was appointed District Attorney of Greene County in 1844. He was elected Surrogate in 1846, but lost reelection in 1851. He moved to Albany, New York in 1853 and entered into partnership with former Congressman Rufus Wheeler Peckham in 1855. Elected as a Democrat, he was New York State Attorney General from 1858 to 1859. He ran unsuccessfully as the Republican candidate for Lieutenant Governor of New York in 1862. In June 1864 he was a delegate to the Baltimore Convention of the National Union Party where he placed the name of Daniel S. Dickinson in contention for the vice presidential nomination on the ticket with President Lincoln. He served as a member of the New York State Assembly in 1866, and was elected Speaker. He was a delegate to the 1868 Republican National Convention and placed Governor Fenton’s name in contention for Vice President on the ticket with General Grant. In 1872, Tremain was elected as a Republican to the Forty-third United States Congress, defeating the incumbent Samuel Sullivan Cox. He served from March 4, 1873, to March 3, 1875, and then did not seek reelection. In 1873, Tremain also served with his partner’s oldest son, Wheeler Hazard Peckham, as special counsel to the State in the prosecution of Boss Tweed. After leaving Congress, Tremain returned to private legal practice in Albany and then died in New York City while visiting. He was buried in Albany Rural Cemetery in Menands, New York. Tremain’s son Frederick Lyman (June 1843 – February 6, 1865) was a lieutenant colonel of the 10th New York Cavalry during the Civil War who was killed at the Battle of Hatcher’s Run. CDV. VG. $75


POL324. Brady’s National Photographic Portrait Galleries, NY and Washington, DC. Peter Barr Sweeny (October 9, 1825 – August 30, 1911) was an American lawyer and politician from New York. He was the son of James Sweeny, who kept a hotel in Hoboken, New Jersey, and Mary (Barr) Sweeny. He attended Columbia College, then studied law, was admitted to the bar and practiced law with James T. Brady in New York City. In 1852, he was appointed Public Administrator. He was New York County District Attorney in 1858, elected on the Democratic ticket in November 1857, but resigned due to ill health. Sweeny was City Chamberlain and Park Commissioner under Mayor A. Oakey Hall. He became notorious as a central figure in the ring that controlled Tammany Hall, and was depicted prominently in Thomas Nast’s cartoons alongside Boss Tweed, Richard B. Connolly and A. Oakey Hall. With Tweed, he was a director of the Erie Railroad, which became “a gigantic highway of robbery and disgrace”. Sweeny was also Director of the Tenth National Bank, in which city funds were deposited. In Nast’s cartoons, Tweed and Sweeny were often identified as “Tweeny and Sweed”; in others, Sweeny was identified as “Peter ‘Brains’ Sweeny”. Public indignation over the theft of millions of dollars by the Tweed ring led to the downfall of the Ring in the municipal election of November 7, 1871. Sweeny resigned from public life the following day. In February 1872, Sweeny was indicted but the D.A.’s office decided for nolle prosequi, and Sweeny went to Canada. In 1877, Sweeny paid $400,000 to New York City in exchange for forgiveness. The fact that the sum was paid in the name of his recently deceased brother, James M. Sweeney, who had been a minor player in the financial operations of the Ring, was widely condemned in the press. On June 7, 1877, the Evening Post wrote, “Of course, nobody will be deceived by this disgraceful and offensive sham. The suit of the people was not against James M. Sweeny … It is known that he lived by the breath of his brother, that he was but a mere miserable tool.” Sweeny died at the home of his son Arthur Sweeny, Assistant Corporation Counsel of New York City. CDV. G. $150


POL325. Sarony & Co., NY. John Thompson Hoffman (January 10, 1828 – March 24, 1888) was the 23rd Governor of New York (1869–72). He was also Recorder of New York City (1861–65) and the 78th Mayor of New York City (1866–68). Connections to the Tweed Ring ruined his political career, in spite of the absence of evidence to show personal involvement in corrupt activities. He is to date the last New York City mayor elected Governor of New York. CDV. G. $100


POL326. W. Walker & Sons, London. William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party. In a career lasting over sixty years, he served for twelve years as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, spread over four terms beginning in 1868 and ending in 1894. He also served as Chancellor of the Exchequer four times. CDV. VG. $95


POL327. Photographic negative by Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E&HT Anthony. Edwin McMasters Stanton (December 19, 1814 – December 24, 1869) was an American lawyer and politician who served as Secretary of War under the Lincoln Administration during most of the Civil War. Stanton’s management helped organize the massive military resources of the North and guide the Union to victory. However, he was criticized by many Union generals for perceived over-cautiousness and micromanagement. He also organized the manhunt for Lincoln’s killer, John Wilkes Booth. After Lincoln’s assassination, Stanton remained as the Secretary of War under the new President Andrew Johnson during the first years of Reconstruction. He opposed the lenient policies of Johnson towards the former Confederate States. Johnson’s attempt to dismiss Stanton ultimately led to President Johnson being impeached by the Radical Republicans in the House of Representatives. Stanton returned to law after retiring as Secretary of War, and in 1869 was nominated as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court by Johnson’s successor, Ulysses S. Grant; however, he died four days after his nomination was confirmed by the Senate. CDV. VG. $150


POL328. Photographic negative by Brady’s National Portrait Gallery, published by E&HT Anthony.  Charles Sumner (January 6, 1811 – March 11, 1874) was an American politician and United States Senator from Massachusetts. As an academic lawyer and a powerful orator, Sumner was the leader of the anti-slavery forces in Massachusetts and a leader of the Radical Republicans in the U.S. Senate during the Civil War. He worked hard to destroy the Confederacy, free all the slaves, and keep on good terms with Europe. During Reconstruction, he fought to minimize the power of the ex-Confederates and guarantee equal rights to the freedmen. He fell into a dispute with fellow Republican President Ulysses Grant on the question of taking control of Santo Domingo. Grant’s allies stripped Sumner of his power in the Senate in 1871, and he joined the Liberal Republican movement in an effort to defeat Grant’s reelection in 1872. Sumner changed his political party several times as anti-slavery coalitions rose and fell in the 1830s and 1840s before coalescing in the 1850s as the Republican Party, the affiliation with which he became best known. He devoted his enormous energies to the destruction of what Republicans called the Slave Power, the influence over the federal government of Southern slave owners who sought the continuation and expansion of slavery. In 1856, a South Carolina Congressman, Democrat Preston Brooks, nearly killed Sumner on the Senate floor two days after Sumner delivered an intensely anti-slavery speech called “The Crime Against Kansas.” In the speech, Sumner characterized the attacker’s cousin, South Carolina Senator Andrew Butler, a Democrat, as a pimp for slavery. The episode played a major role in the coming of the Civil War. During the war, Sumner was a leader of the Radical Republican faction that criticized President Abraham Lincoln for being too moderate on the South. One of the most learned statesmen of the era, he specialized in foreign affairs, and worked closely with Abraham Lincoln to keep the British and the French from intervening on the side of the Confederacy during the Civil War. Sumner’s expertise and energy made him a powerful chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. As the chief Radical leader in the Senate during Reconstruction, Sumner fought hard to provide equal civil and voting rights for the freedmen on the grounds that “consent of the governed” was a basic principle of American republicanism, and to block ex-Confederates from power so they would not reverse the gains made from the Union’s victory in the Civil War. Sumner, teaming with House leader Thaddeus Stevens, battled Andrew Johnson’s reconstruction plans and sought to impose a Radical program on the South. Although Sumner forcefully advocated the annexation of Alaska in the Senate, he was against the annexation of the Dominican Republic, then known by the name of its capital, Santo Domingo. After leading Senators to defeat President Ulysses S. Grant’s Santo Domingo Treaty in 1870, Sumner broke with Grant, and denounced him in such terms that reconciliation was impossible. In 1871, President Grant and his Secretary of State Hamilton Fish retaliated; through Grant’s supporters in the Senate, Sumner was deposed as head of the Foreign Relations Committee. Sumner had become convinced that Grant was a corrupt despot and that the success of Reconstruction policies called for new national leadership. Sumner bitterly opposed Grant’s reelection by supporting the Liberal Republican candidate Horace Greeley in 1872 and lost his power inside the Republican Party. Less than two years later, he died in office. CDV. VG. $150


POL330. C.D. Fredricks & Co., NY. William Henry Seward (May 16, 1801 – October 10, 1872) was United States Secretary of State from 1861 to 1869, and earlier served as Governor of New York and United States Senator. A determined opponent of the spread of slavery in the years leading up to the Civil War, he was a dominant figure in the Republican Party in its formative years, and was praised for his work on behalf of the Union as Secretary of State during the Civil War. Seward was born in Florida, Orange County, New York, where his father was a farmer and owned slaves. He was educated as a lawyer and moved to the Central New York town of Auburn. Seward was elected to the New York State Senate in 1830 as an Anti-Mason. Four years later, he became the gubernatorial nominee of the Whig Party. Though he was not successful in that race, Seward was elected governor in 1838 and won a second two-year term in 1840. During this period, he signed several laws that advanced the rights and opportunities for black residents, as well as guaranteeing fugitive slaves jury trials in the state. The legislation protected abolitionists, and he used his position to intervene in cases of freed black people who were enslaved in the South. After many years of practicing law in Auburn, he was finally elected by the state legislature to the U.S. Senate in 1849. Seward’s strong stances and provocative words against slavery brought him hatred in the South. He was re-elected to the Senate in 1855, and soon joined the nascent Republican Party, becoming one of its leading figures. As the 1860 presidential election approached, he was regarded as the leading candidate for the Republican nomination. Several factors, including attitudes to his vocal opposition to slavery, his support for immigrants and Catholics, and his association with editor and political boss Thurlow Weed, worked against him and Abraham Lincoln secured the presidential nomination. Although devastated by his loss, he campaigned for Lincoln, who was elected and appointed him Secretary of State. Seward did his best to stop the southern states from seceding; once that failed, he devoted himself wholeheartedly to the Union cause. His firm stance against foreign intervention in the Civil War helped deter the United Kingdom and France from entering the conflict and possibly gaining the independence of the Confederate States. He was one of the targets of the 1865 assassination plot that killed Lincoln, and was seriously wounded by conspirator Lewis Powell. Seward remained loyally at his post through the presidency of Andrew Johnson, during which he negotiated the Alaska purchase in 1867 and supported Johnson during his impeachment. His contemporary Carl Schurz described Seward as “one of those spirits who sometimes will go ahead of public opinion instead of tamely following its footprints.” CDV. VG. $150


POL332. Sarony, NY. William Magear Tweed (April 3, 1823 – April 12, 1878), widely known as “Boss” Tweed—was an American politician most notable for being the “boss” of Tammany Hall, the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in the politics of 19th century New York City and State. At the height of his influence, Tweed was the third-largest landowner in New York City and a director of the Erie Railroad, the Tenth National Bank, and the New-York Printing Company, as well as proprietor of the Metropolitan Hotel. Tweed was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1852 and the New York County Board of Supervisors in 1858, the year he became the head of the Tammany Hall political machine. He was also elected to the New York State Senate in 1867, but Tweed’s greatest influence came from being an appointed member of a number of boards and commissions, his control over political patronage in New York City through Tammany, and his ability to ensure the loyalty of voters through jobs he could create and dispense on city-related projects. Tweed was convicted for stealing an amount estimated by an aldermen’s committee in 1877 at between $25 million and $45 million from New York City taxpayers through political corruption, although later estimates ranged as high as $200 million. Unable to make bail, he escaped from jail once, but was returned to custody. He died in the Ludlow Street Jail. Cabinet Card. VG. $175